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Psychiatric and Associated Drugs



Abbreviations  or   *  

Trade Name

Generic Name

Generic Name Trade Name Usage Dosage Half-Life
Metabolism
Properties
acamprosate Campral, Aotal, Zulex antidipsotropic, alcohol dependence, alcohol withdrawal, bipolar disorder 1200-1800mg 13-28 hrs
renal excretion
*  homotaurine:
GLU release inhibitor
GABAergic
acetophenazine Tindal, Mepronizine, Noctran antipsychotic 20-60mg 20-40 hrs *  piperazine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
adinazolam Deracyn depression, anxiety, panic 30-90mg 3 hrs
CYP-3A
*  triazolo benzodiazepine:
BZD partial agonist
NE release
5-HT release
adrafinil Olmifon nootropic, vigilance, depression, dysthymia 600-1200mg 1 hr
glycuroconjugation
*  diphenyl methylsulfinyl:
GLU release
agomelatine Valdoxan depression, anxiety, insomnia 25mg 2 hours
N/A
*  methoxynaphthyl ethylacetamide:
5- HT2b antagonist ++
5-HT2c antagonist +++
melatonin M1 receptor agonist +++
melatonin M2 receptor agonist +++
almodipine Norvasc, Lotrel, Amlor, Istin hypertension, angina, bipolar disorder 5-10mg 30-50 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  dihydropyridine:
CCB
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
alprazolam Xanax, Ansiopax, Apotex, Constan, Mialin, Pazolam, Tafil, Tranquinal, Xanor, Zanapam anxiety, GAD, panic disorder 1.5-4.0mg
(10mg max)
11.2 hrs (6-26 hrs)
CYP-3A
*  triazolo benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
5-HT release
amantadine Symmetrel, Symandine, Amantan, Mantadan, Virofral, Parkinsons, antiviral, depression, AP-induced EPS 100-300mg 10-22 hrs
renal excretion
*  cyclic amine:
NMDA antagonist
DA increase
DA release
amfebutamone
(bupropion)
Wellbutrin, Zyban depression, smoking cessation, AD sexual side-effects 75-300mg
(450mg max)
21 hrs
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2B6
*  monocyclic aminoketone:
DA reuptake inhibition +
NE increase
ACh(n) antagonist
amiflamine N/A depression 5-10mg CYP-2D6 *  methylphenethylamine:
RIMA
amineptine Survector, Directim, Maneon depression 100-200mg 5-8 hrs *  dibenzocycloheptene:
DA reuptake inhibition
amisulpride Solian antipsychotic, depression, dysthymia AP: 400-800mg
(1200mg max)

AD: 50-200mg
12 hrs
renal excretion
*  benzamide:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
(pre > post)
DA3 antagonist +++
amitriptyline Elavil, Endep, Etrafon, Amitril, Amitrip, Domical, Etravil, Laroxyl, Lentizol, Levate, Miketorin, Novotriptyn, Pinsanu, Quietal, Redomex, Saroten, Tridep, Triptizol, Tryptal, Uxen, Vanatrip depression, insomnia, anorexia, pain disorders, migraine 50-200mg
(300mg max)
20 hrs
(10-50 hrs)
CYP-2D6
CYP-2C19
CYP-1A2
P-gp
*  dibenzocycloheptadiene:
tertiary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT2 antagonist ++
ACh antagonist
H1 antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
amitriptyline + chlordiazepoxide Limbitrol
(12.5+5mg)
(25+10mg)
comorbid depression and anxiety (25+10mg)
3-6 per day
N/A *  TCA + benzodiazepine:
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
+ BZD agonist
amitriptyline + perphenazine Triavil, Etrafon comorbid depression with (agitation or anxiety) 200mg+16mg
max
N/A *  TCA + neuroleptic:
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
+ DA antagonist
amoxapine Asendin, Defanyl, Moxadil depression (psychotic) 200-400mg
(600mg max)
8 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzoxazepine:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
DA antagonist
5-HT2 antagonist
5-HT3 antagonist
amphetamine
(mixed salts)
Adderall, Biphetamine ADD, ADHD, narcolepsy, depression, AD sexual side-effects 5-40mg
(60mg max)
10-25 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  psychostimulant:
NE release +++
DA release ++
DA reuptake inhibition +
NE reuptake inhibition +
amphetamine
(d-amphetamine)
Dexedrine, DextroStat, Benzadrine ADD, ADHD, narcolepsy, obesity, depression 5-30mg
(40mg max)
10-25 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  psychostimulant:
NE release +++
DA release ++
DA reuptake inhibition +
NE reuptake inhibition +
apomorphine Uprima, Apokinin Parkinsons, sexual dysfunction (erectile), alcohol withdrawal 2-3mg 1-2 hrs
glucuronide conjugation
*  dibenzoquinoleine:
DA agonist
aprepitant Emend depression, antiemetic N/A N/A *  triazoline:
NK-1 antagonist
aripiprazole Abilify, Abilitat antipsychotic, depression, mania 15-30mg 75 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A4
*  quinolinone:
DSS
DA2 partial agonist +++
DA3 antagonist +++
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT1a agonist ++
asenapine Saphris antipsychotic, bipolar mania 10-20mg 24 hrs
CYP-1A2
glucuronidation
*  dibenzo-oxepino pyrrole:
DA(1,2,3,4) antagonist ++
5-HT2(a,b,c) antagonist +++
5-HT1(a,b) partial agonist ++
5-HT7 antagonist ++
NE alpha2 antagonist
atenolol Tenormin, Antipressan, Atehexal, Atenol, Blokium, Bresben, Ibinolo, Neatenol, Normiten, Tenif, Tenoretic hypertension, angina, tremor, anxiety, akathisia, migraine 50-200mg 6-7 hrs
renal excretion
*  acetamide
BB
NE-beta1 antagonist ++
NE-beta2 antagonist +
atomoxetine
(tomoxetine)
Strattera ADD, ADHD, depression 50-150mg
(1.2-1.8mg/kg)
5 hrs
(5-24 hrs)
CYP-2D6
*  tolyloxypropylamine:
NE reuptake inhibition +++
befloxatone N/A depression 10-40mg N/A *  oxazolidinone:
RIMA
benmoxine Neuralex, Nerusil depression, anger 50-75mg N/A *  hydrazine:
MAOI
benztropine
(benzatropine)
Cogentin, Akitan, Cogentinol Parkinsons, AP-induced EPS, antispasmodic 0.5-6.0mg N/A *  methanesulfonate:
anticholinergic
ACh(m) antagonist
H1 antagonist
bethanechol Urecholine AD-induced urinary retention 10-50mg dose / 3-4x per day N/A *  esther:
cholinergic
ACh(m) agonist
binedaline N/A depression 50-100mg
(150mg max)
5 hrs *  indole:
NE reuptake inhibition
biperiden Akineton Parkinsons, AP-induced EPS, AD-induced sweating 2-6mg N/A
hydroxylation
*  piperidine:
anticholinergic
ACh(m) antagonist
brofaromine Consonar depression, social phobia 50-150mg 15 hrs
CYP-1A2
*  piperidine:
RIMA
5-HT reuptake inhibition
bromazepam Lexotan, Lectopam, Lexotanil anxiolytic, muscle-relaxant, anticonvulsant, delerium tremens 4.5-9mg
(36mg max)
19hrs
hydroxylation
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
bromocriptine Parlodel, Ergoset Parkinsons, depression, RLS, hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly 2.5-40mg 2-8 hrs *  ergot alkaloid:
DA2 agonist
buprenorphine Temgesic, Buprenex, Subutex analgesic, depression, opioid dependence 1.2-3.2mg 2.2 hrs
(1.2-7.2 hrs)
*  morphinane:
opioid
opioid(mu) partial agonist
opioid(kappa) antagonist
bupropion Wellbutrin, Zyban depression, smoking cessation, ADD, ADHD, AD sexual side-effects 75-300mg
(450mg max)
21 hrs
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2B6
*  monocyclic aminoketone:
DA reuptake inhibition +
NE increase
ACh(n) antagonist
buspirone Buspar anxiety, GAD, IBS, AD Augment 20-30mg
(60mg max)
2-3 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  azapirone:
5-HT1a full agonist (pre)
5-HT1a partial agonist (post)
DA2 partial agonist
* 1-PP metabolite:
NE-alpha2 antagonist
butriptyline Evadyne, Evadene, Centrolyse depression N/A N/A *  TCA:
NE reuptake inhibition
5- HT reuptake inhibition
cabergoline Dostinex Hyperprolactinemia, Parkinsons, Depression, RLS 0.25-1.0mg
Twice a week
60 hrs
hydrolysis
*  ergoline:
DA2 agonist
5-HT2b agonist
caffeine Vivarin, Cafcit,
No Doz,
BL Stay Awake
stimulant, analeptic 50-200mg 3-4 hrs
CYP-1A2
*  methylxanthine:
adenosine antagonist
cAMP PDE inhibition
calcium carbimide Temposil, Abstem alcoholism 100-200mg 1.5 hrs *  carbimide:
acetaldehyde- deshydrogenase inhibition
carbamazepine Tegretol, Epitol, Atretol, Carbatrol, Carbium, Teril, Sirtal, Telestin, Timonil anticonvulsant, pain disorders, aggression 600-1200mg 12-17 hrs
CYP-3A4
CYP-2C19
*  tricyclic iminostilbene:
Na+ channel inhibition
adenylyl cyclase inhibition
caroxazone N/A depression N/A 36 hrs *  benzoxazine:
RIMA
carpipramine Prazinil, Defekton antipsychotic, drug detoxification 50-400mg N/A *  dibenzoazepine:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist
cericlamine N/A depression N/A N/A *  dimethyloamine:
5-HT reuptake inhibition
chloral hydrate Aquachloral, Nortec insomnia 500 - 1000mg 8-10 hrs *  trichloroethanol:
CNS depressant:
GABA-A increase
chlordiazepoxide Librium, Libritabs, Tropium anxiolytic, alcohol withdrawal, IBS 10-40mg 24-48 hrs
CYP-3A
*  2-keto benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
chlorpromazine Thorazine, Chlomazine, Dormazine, Fenactil, Hibernal, Ormazine, Promaz, Prozil, Solidon, Sonazine, Taroctyl antipsychotic, hiccups, nausea, porphyria 75-200mg
(900mg max)
30 hrs
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-1A2
UGT-1A4
*  phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist +
DA2 antagonist ++
5-HT2a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
H1 antagonist ++
chlorprothixene Taractan, Chlorprothixen, Cloxan, Minithixen, Truxal, Truxaletten antipsychotic 300-600mg N/A *  thioxanthene
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2 antagonist
ciclazindol N/A depression, obesity 100-150mg 32 hrs *  tetrahydropyrimide:
DA reuptake inhibition
NE reuptake inhibition
K+(ATP) channel inhibition
cimoxatone N/A depression N/A N/A *  oxazolidinone:
RIMA
citalopram Celexa, Cipramil, Seropram depression 20-60mg 35 hrs
CYP-2C19
*  bicyclic phthalane:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
clobazam Frisium, Mystan epilepsy, anxiolytic 20-60mg 18-26 hrs *  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
clomipramine Anafranil, Clofranil, Clomifril, Clopress, Gromin, Hydiphen, Placil depression, OCD 50-250mg 19-37 hrs
CYP-1A2
*  dibenzazepine:
tertiary TCA
5- HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
ACh antagonist
NE-alpha antagonist
clonazepam Klonopin, Rivotril anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, bipolar disorder, agoraphobia, panic disorder, Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome anxiety: 0.5-4mg
AC: 1.5-10mg
(20mg max)
30-40 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  3-hydroxy benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
5-HT increase
clonidine Catapres, Dixarit hypertension, ADD, ADHD, anxiety, aggression, opioid withdrawal, motor tics, Tourette's, migraine 0.2-0.6mg
(2.4mg max)
12-16 hrs *  imidazoline:
NE-alpha2 agonist
clopenthixol Clopixol antipsychotic 10-50mg
(200mg max)
20 hrs *  thioxanthene:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist
DA2 antagonist
clorazepate Tranxene anxiolytic, partial seizures, alcohol withdrawal 15-60mg 30-40 hrs
(norclorazepate)
*  2-keto benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
clorgyline N/A depression, ADD, ADHD 5-15mg
(30mg max)
N/A *  propargylamine:
MAO-A inhibitor +++
clovoxamine N/A depression 100-300mg N/A *  aminoethyloxime:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition +
clozapine Clozaril antipsychotic, reduce TD, AD augmentor 150-900mg 12 hrs
(4-66 hrs)
*  dibenzodiazepine:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +
DA4 antagonist +
5-HT2a/b/c ++
5-HT6/7 +
NE- alpha1 antagonist ++
H1 antagonist +++
Ach(m) antagonist +++
cocaine N/A topical anesthetic (oral, laryngeal and nasal cavities) N/A 30-90 minutes
CYP-3A4
*  psychostimulant:
DA reuptake inhibition ++
NE reuptake inhibition +
cyproheptadine Periactin, Dronactin, Cipractin, Nuran, Oractin, Periactinol allergy, pruritis, urticaria, AD sexual side-effects, appetite stimulant, migraine 4-20mg
(32mg max)
1-4 hrs
renal excretion
*  dibenzocycloheptene:
5-HT2a antagonist +++
5-HT2c antagonist ++
H1 antagonist +++
H4 antagonist ++
ACh(m) antagonist
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
dapoxetine N/A depression, premature ejaculation N/A N/A *  benzenemethanamine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition
demexiptiline Tinoran, Deparon depression 50-75mg 35 hrs
desmethylation
*  dibenzocycloheptene:
NE reuptake inhibition +++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
ACh antagonist
l-deprenyl
(selegiline)
Eldepryl, Carbex, Jumex, Emsam Parkinsons, depression, dementia, neuroprotective 5-30mg
(60mg max)
6mg/24hr patch
9mg/24hr patch
12mg/24hr patch
2-10 hrs
18-25hr patches
CYP-2C19
CYP-2B6
*  propargylamine:
MAOI
MAO-B inhibition ++
MAO-A inhibition +
deramciclane N/A anxiolytic 30-50mg
25 hrs *  trimethyl-bicycloheptane:
5-HT2a antagonist
5-HT2c inverse agonist
desipramine Norpramin, Pertrofane, Metylyl, Nortimil, Pertofrane, Pertofrin, Sertofren depression, ADD, ADHD, bulimia, IBS, pain disorders 50-200mg
(300mg max)
20-25 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzazepine:
secondary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition +++
ACh(m) antagonist +
NE-alpha1 antagonist
dexmethylphenidate Focalin ADD, ADHD, depression, CFS 5-20mg N/A *  psychostimulant:
DA reuptake inhibition
NE reuptake inhibition
NE release
dextroamphetamine
(d-amphetamine)
Dexedrine, DextroStat ADD, ADHD, narcolepsy, obesity 5-30mg
(40mg max)
10-25 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  psychostimulant:
NE release +++
DA release ++
DA reuptake inhibition +
NE reuptake inhibition +
diazepam Valium, Dizac anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, seizures, status epilepticus, athetosus, tetanus, alcohol withdrawal, surgical sedation 10-40mg 20 hrs
CYP-2C19
CYP-3A4
*  2-keto benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
dibenzepine Noveril, Ecotril, Victoril depression 240-480mg N/A *  dibenzepine:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
dihydroergocryptine (DHEC) Almirid, Hydergine (includes ergoloid mesylates) nootropic, cerebrovascular insufficiency, dementia, neuroprotection, migraine Almirid: 10-40mg
Hydergine: 1-3mg
2.6-5.1 hrs *  ergot alkaloid:
DA agonist
NE- alpha antagonist
MAOI
diphenhydramine Benadryl allergy, sedative, Parkinsonism, AP-induced EPS 75-200mg 2.4-9.3 hrs *  ethanolamine:
antihistamine
H1 antagonist
ACh(m) antagonist
disulfiram Antabuse, Alcophobin, Anticol, Aversan, Etiltox alcoholism 125-500mg 54-72 hrs
renal clearance
*  diethylthiocarbamoyl:
acetaldehyde-deshydrogenase inhibition
divalproex sodium Depakote, Epival, Elvetium, Everiden, Novoseven, Valcote, Valnar anticonvulsant, migraine, bipolar disorder (mood-stabilizer) 750-3000mg
(50-125mcg/ml)
9-16 hrs
CYP-2C9 (inhibitor)
CYP-2A6
glucoronidation
*  carboxylic acid:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+(T) channel inhibition
GABA increase:
1. GABA transaminase inhibition
2. SSAD dehydrogenase inhibition
donepezil Aricept Alzheimer's, enhance memory and cognition 5-10mg 70 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A4
*  piperidine:
cholinergic
ACh acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
dothiepin (dosulepin) Prothiaden, Arpin, Idom depression 50-225mg 22 hrs
(11-30 hrs)
CYP-1A2
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzothiepine:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
ACh(m) antagonist
dosulepin (dothiepin) Prothiaden, Arpin, Idom depression 50-225mg 22 hrs
(11-30 hrs)
CYP-1A2
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzothiepine:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
ACh(m) antagonist
doxepin Sinequan, Adapin, Aponal, Poldoxin, Quitaxon, Desidox, Doneurin, Doxal, Doxedyn depression, anxiety, 75-150mg
(300mg max)
8-24 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzoxepin:
tertiary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
ACh(m) antagonist
H1 antagonist +++
H2 antagonist +++
NE- alpha1 antagonist
droperidol Inapsine antipsychotic, antiemetic injectable 2 hrs *  butyrophenone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist
duloxetine Cymbalta depression 40-120mg 10-15 hrs *  thiophenepropanamine:
SNRI
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
entacapone Comtan, Comtess Parkinsons 400-1600mg 1 hr
glucuronidation
*  nitrocatechol:
COMT inhibition
escitalopram Lexapro, Cipralex depression, panic disorder 10-30mg 27-32 hrs
CYP-2C19
*  bicyclic phthalane:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
estazolam Prosom, Deprinocte, Domnamid, Esilgan, Kainever, Nuctalon insomnia 1-2mg 10-24 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  triazolo benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
eszopiclone Lunesta, Estorra insomnia 2-3mg 6 hrs
CYP3A4
CYP2E1
*  
cyclopyrrolone:
BZD GABA receptor agonist
ethopropazine
(profenamine)
Pardidol, Parsidol, Parsitan, Dibutil, Lysivane, Rodipal Parkinsons, AP-induced EPS 100-600mg N/A *  phenothiazine:
ACh(m) antagonist
ethosuximide Zarontin anticonvulsant 1000-1500mg 30-50 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  succinimide:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca+2 channel inhibition
etoperidone N/A depression 150mg 21 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  phenylpiperazine:
NE-alpha2 antagonist
5-HT1a antagonist
5-HT2a/c antagonist
etryptamine Monase depression N/A N/A *  ndolalkylamine:
MAOI
femoxetine N/A depression, obesity, migraine, narcolepsy 400-600mg N/A *  methylpiperidine:
5-HT reuptake inhibition
felbamate Felbatol epilepsy, biopolar disorder 600-2400mg
(3600mg max)
20-23 hrs
CYP-2E1
CYP-2C19 (inhibitor)
*  phenylpropanediol:
NMDA antagonist
fengabine N/A depression 900-1800mg N/A *  benzylidene:
GABA increase
flerobuterol N/A depression N/A N/A *  butylamino ethanol:
NE-beta agonist
5-HT increase
flesinoxan N/A depression, anxiety 0.6-2.4mg N/A *  phenylpiperazine:
5-HT1a agonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
flibanserin Ectris depression 50-200mg 5.0-6.5 hrs *  benzimidazol:
5-HT1a agonist
5- HT2a antagonist
flunitrazepam Rohypnol, Hipnosedon anxiolytic, hypnotic 0.5-2.0mg
(3.0mg max)
22 hrs
(16-35 hrs)
CYP-3A
UGT-UB7
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
fluoxetine Prozac, Sarafem, Lovan, Prodep, Deproxin, Fluoxac, Fluoxil, Zactin depression, PMDD, OCD, bulimia 20-60mg
(120mg max)
4-6 days
(norfluoxetine 9-14 days)
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2C9
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2C9
*  propylamine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2c antagonist
NE increase
fluparoxan N/A depression N/A N/A *  benzodioxino:
NE-alpha2 antagonist +++
5-HT1a partial agonist +
flupenthixol Fluanxol, Depixol antipsychotic 3-6mg
(12mg max)
14-17 days (injectable) *  thioxanthene:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist +
DA2 antagonist ++
5-HT2a antagonist ++
fluphenazine Prolixin, Modecate, Permitil antipsychotic 2.5-20.0mg
(40mg max)
4-14 days (injectable)
CYP-2D6
P-gp
*  piperazine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist ++
DA2 antagonist +++
5-HT2a antagonist +
flurazepam Dalmane insomnia 15-30mg 2-3 hrs
(N-desalkylflurazepam: 80 hrs)
CYP-3A4
*  2-keto benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
fluvoxamine Luvox, Floxyfral OCD, depression 100-300mg 15.6 hrs
CYP-2C9
CYP-3A4 (inhibitor)
*  valerophenone:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
gabapentin Neurontin anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, pain disorders, migraine 600-2400mg
(5400mg max)
5-7 hrs
renal excretion
*  cyclohexonacetic acid:
GABA increase
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
galantamine Reminyl, Nivalin Alzheimer's 8-16mg
(24mg max)
7 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A4
glucuronidation
*  tertiary alkaloid:
cholinergic
ACh acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
ACh(n) agonist
gepirone Ariza, Variza depression, anxiety 10-90mg 1-2 hrs
CYP-3A
CYP-2D6 (metabolite)
*  azapirone:
5-HT1a full agonist (pre)
5-HT1a partial agonist (post)
NE-alpha2 antagonist
(1-PP metabolite)
GHB
(oxybate)
Xyrem, Somsanit narcoleptic cataplexy, anesthesia, insomnia, stroke 6-9grams 0.5-1.0 hrs
tricarboxylic acid
(Krebs cycle)
*  gamma hydroxybutyrate
GABA-B agonist
GABA increase
halazepam Paxipam, Alapryl, Pacinone anxiolytic 60-160mg oxidation *  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
haloperidol Haldol antipsychotic, Tourette's syndrome 2-20mg
(40mg max)
18-25 hrs
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
glucuronidation
*  butyrophenone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
DA3/4 antagonist ++
5-HT2a +
NE-alpha1 ++
hydroxyzine Atarax, Vistaril allergy, sedative 50-100mg 20 hrs *  piperazine:
antihistamine
H1 antagonist
ACh(m) antagonist
idazoxan N/A depression 40-120mg 4 hrs *  imidazoline:
NE-alpha2 antagonist
igmesine N/A depression 200mg N/A *  diphenylamine:
sigma1 agonist
NMDA antagonist
iloperidone Fanapt, Zomaril antipsychotic 6-12mg 25 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A4.
*  piperidinyl-benzisoxazole:
DA(2,3) antagonist++
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT7 antagonist +
NE-alpha1 +
imipramine Tofranil, Janimine, Antideprin, Ethipramine, Imavate, Melipramine, Mipralin, Pryleugan, Sedacoroxen, Venefon depression, ADD, ADHD, IBS 75-300mg 19 hrs
(8-20 hrs)
*  dibenzazepine:
tertiary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
ACh(m) antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
indalpine Upstene depression, anxiety 100-150mg 10 hrs *  indole:
5-HT reuptake inhibition
indeloxazine Elen depression, Alzheimer's, hypoxia, nootropic 40-120mg N/A *  morpholine:
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition
5-HT release
ACh release
incazane N/A depression 150-300mg N/A *  
RIMA
iprindole N/A depression 90mg N/A *  tricyclic
5-HT2 antagonist +
aromatic hydroxylase inhibition
iproniazid Iprozid, Ipronid, Marsilid, Rivivol, Propilniazida tuberculosis, depression 50-150mg 2-3 hrs *  hydrazine:
MAOI
iproclozide Sursum depression, hypertension 10-30mg N/A *  hydrazine:
MAOI
ipsapirone N/A depression, anxiety 10mg 2-5 hrs
CYP-3A
CYP-2D6 (metabolite)
*  azapirone:
5-HT1a full agonist (pre)
5-HT1a partial agonist (post)
* 1-PP metabolite:
NE-alpha2 antagonist
isocarboxazid Marplan, Enerzer, Marplon depression 30-80mg N/A *  hydrazine:
MAOI
isradipine Dynacirc, Lomir, Icaz hypertension, bipolar disorder, depression 5-10mg
(20mg max)
8 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  dihydropyridine:
CCB
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
ketanserin Sufrexal, Aseranox, Ketensin, Ketenserina, Perketan, Serepress, Sparfloxacine hypertension, preeclampsia, Raynaud's 60-120mg
(160mg max)
15 hrs *  quinazolinedione:
NMDA antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
H1 antagonist
ketazolam Anxon anxiolytic, insomnia, alcohol withdrawal 15-60mg
(120mg max)
2 hrs *  benzodiazepine
BZD agonist
L-dopa
(levodopa)
Larodopa, Dopar, Sinemet (carbidopa/l-dopa) Parkinsons, depression 2-8grams 1-2 hrs *  catecholamine:
DA increase
L-methylfolate Deplin depression, low serum folate 7.5mg 6-8 hrs *  folate:
DA, NE, 5-HT increase
lamotrigine Lamictal anticonvulsant, depression, bipolar disorder 50-500mg 25 hrs
(48 hrs with valproate)
(12 hrs with carbamazepine)
UGT-1A4
*  phenyltriazine:
Na+ channel inhibition
GLU release inhibition
Ca2+(N) channel inhibition
Ca2+(P) channel inhibition
levetiracetam Keppra anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder 1000-3000mg
(5000mg max)
6-8 hrs *  pyrrolidine:
Ca2+(N) channel inhibition
levomepromazine
(methotrimeprazine)
Levoprome, Nozinan, Neurocil, Veractil, Sinogan antipsychotic, migraine, surgical sedation, pain disorders 50-200mg
(500mg max)
15-30 hrsCYP-2D6
CYP-3A4 (inhibitor)
*  phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist
DA2 antagonist
levoprotiline N/A depression 100-200mg 18 hrs *  tetracyclic:
NE reuptake inhibition
liothyronine (T3)
(also triiodothyronine)
Cytomel hypothyroidism, depression, bipolar disorder 25-100mcg 1-2 days *  thyroid hormone:
NE receptor sensitivity increase
MAO inhibition
lithium Eskalith, Lithobid, Carbolith, Carbolithium, Contemnol, Duralith, Hypnorex, Lentolith, Liskonum, Litarex, Lithane, Lithicarb, Lithizine, Maniprex, Milithin, Neurolepsin, Neurolithium, Phasal, Quilonorm, Teralithe bipolar disorder, depression (augmentor), schizoaffective, neuroprotection, neurotrophic bipolar:
900-1500mg
(0.8-1.2 mEq/L)

unipolar:
300-600mg
(0.4-0.6 mEq/L)
14-30 hrs
renal excretion
*  alkali metal Li+ ion:
5-HT autoreceptor antagonist
GLU decreased
PI turnover decreased
PKC decreased
GSK-3b decreased
MAP kinase increase
Bcl-2 increase
BDNF increase
NFG increase
litoxetine N/A depression 10-25mg N/A *  
5-HT reuptake inhibition
5-HT3 antagonist
ACh(m) antagonist
lofepramine Emdalen, Gamanil, Lomont, Tymelyt depression 70 - 210mg 4-6 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  TCA:
NE reuptake inhibition
lorazepam Ativan, Alzapam, Almazine, Durazolam, Loraz, Tavor, Temesta anxiolytic, insomnia 2-10mg
9-24 hrs
UGT-UB7
*  3-hydroxy benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
loprazolam Dormonoct, Havlane, Sonan insomnia 1-2mg 8 hrs *  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
lormetazepam Noctomid, Noctamide, Ergocalm, insomnia 1-2mg 10 hrs *  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
loxapine Loxitane, Loxapac, Desconex antipsychotic 60-100mg
(250mg max)
3 hrs
20-30 hrs (active metabolite)
UGT-1A4
glucuronidation
*  dibenzoxazepine:
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
lurasidone Latuda antipsychotic, depression 40-80mg
(120mg max)
18 hrs
aldeyde oxidase
CYP-3A4
*  
benzoisothiazol
DA2 antagonist ++
5-HT1a agonist ++
5-HT1d antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist +++
5-HT7 antagonist +++
maprotiline Ludiomil, Aneural, Retinyl, Deprilept, Maludil, Melodil depression, lumbago 75-150mg 27-58 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  tetracyclic:
NE reuptake inhibition ++
ACh(m) antagonist
mazindol Mazanor, Sanorex, Sanjorex, Teronac obesity, EDS, depression 1-3mg 12 hrs *  imidazoline:
DA reuptake inhibition
NE reuptake inhibition
mebanazine Actomol depression N/A N/A *  hydrazine:
MAOI
mecamylamine Inversine, Mevasine, Prexion hypertension, Tourette's, ADD, ADHD, smoking cessation, bipolar disorder 5-25mg renal excretion *  amine
ACh(n) antagonist
medazepam Nobrium, Rusedal anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle-relaxant 10-30mg 2-5 hrs
1-15 hrs (biphasic)
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
medifoxamine Cledial, Gerdasyl depression 100-150mg 1 hr *  amine
DA reuptake inhibition
5- HT2a antagonist
5-HT2c antagonist
mefexamide Timodyne, Perneuron depression, asthenia 300-600mg 4-6 hrs psychostimulant
melitracen Dixoran, Melixeran, Trausabun depression, analeptic 75-225mg N/A *  TCA:
melperone Buronil, Eunerpan antipsychotic 100mg N/A *  butyrophenone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2 antagonist
memantine Namenda, Axura, Akatinol, Ebixa, Neuroplus Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, depression, pain disorders, neuroprotective 20-40mg 60-80 hrs *  cyclic amine:
NMDA antagonist
meprobamate Miltown, Equanil, Meprotabs, Meprospan, Meptran, Novalm, Pertranquil, Promate, Vio-Bamate anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic 1200-1600mg
(2400 max)
6-17 hrs
glucuronide conjugation
*  carbamate:
CNS depressant
mesoridazine Serentil, Lidanil antipsychotic, alcoholism, chronic brain syndrome: 100-400mg 24-48 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  piperidine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
metaclazepam Talis anxiolytic 5-20mg N/A *  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
metapramine Timaxil depression 150-450mg 7 hrs
desmethylation
*  dibenzoazepine:
NE synthesis
NE release
NMDA antagonist
methadone Dolophine, Physeptone, Methadose, Physeptone opioid dependence, analgesic 15-40mg 28-35 hrs
CYP-2D6
(inhibitor)
CYP-3A
UGT-UB7
*  diphenylheptane:
opioid:
opioid(mu) agonist
methamphetamine Desoxyn, Methampex, Methedrine, Pervitin, Temmler ADD, ADHD, obesity 10-25mg 10-25 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  psychostimulant:
5-HT release +++
NE release +++
DA release ++
DA reuptake inhibition
NE reuptake inhibition
methotrimeprazine
(levomepromazine)
Levoprome, Nozinan, Neurocil, Veractil, Sinogan antipsychotic, anxiolytic, sedative, antiemetic, analgesic anxiolytic: 10-25mg

AP: 50-200mg
(500 max)
15-30 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  phenothiazine:
DA antagonist
NE-alpha antagonist
H1 antagonist
methylphenidate Ritalin, Concerta, Metadate, Methylin, Methylphen ADD, ADHD, depression, CFS 20-30mg
(60mg max)
2.9 hrs *  psychostimulant:
DA reuptake inhibition
NE reuptake inhibition
NE release
mexiletine Mexitil antiarrhythmic, anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder, pain disorders, 300-1200mg 10 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-1A2 inhibitor
*  ethylamine:
Na+ channel inhibitor
mianserin Athymil, Bolvidon, Norval, Tolvin depression 30-90mg 10-17 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-1A2
(inhibitor)
UGT-1A4
*  tetracyclic:
NE-alpha2 antagonist
5-HT2 antagonist
H1 antagonist
midazolam Versed, Dormicum, Hypnovel preoperative sedation 5mg injectable 2.9-4.5 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
mifepristone
(RU-486)
Mifeprex, Corlux terminate pregnancy, bipolar disorder, psychotic depression 600-1200mg 18 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  proponyl-estra-diene
cortisol receptor antagonist
progesterone receptor antagonist
milnacipran Ixel, Toledomin depression 50-200mg 8 hrs
glucuronidation
renal excretion
*  cyclopropane:
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
minaprine Cantor depression, nootropic 100-250mg 2-3 hrs *  phenylpyridazine:
DA increase
ACh increase
ACh(m) agonist
5-HT2b antagonist
PKC activation
mirtazapine Remeron, Norset, Zipsin depression 15 - 45mg
(75mg max)
20-40 hrs
CYP-1A2
CYP-3A
*  piperazinoazepine:
NE-alpha2 antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT2c antagonist
5-HT3 antagonist
H1 antagonist
moclobemide Aurorix, Manerix, Moclamine depression, social phobia 150 - 600mg
(1200 max)
1-2 hrs
CYP-2C19
*  benzamide:
RIMA
modafinil Provigil, Alertec, Modiodal narcolepsy, EDS, depression 200-400mg 15 hrs
hydrolysis
*  diphenyl methylsulfinyl:
GLU release
GABA decrease
hypocretin (orexin)agonist
molindone Moban, Lindone antipsychotic 20-225mg 1.5 hrs *  dihydroindolone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist ++
ACh(m) antagonist ++
nalmefene Revex, Cervene opioid overdose, opioid dependence, alcohol dependence, OCD, SI 20-80mg 7-10 hrs
UGT-UB7
*  morphinane:
opioid(mu) antagonist +++
opioid(kappa) antagonist +++
opioid(delta) antagonist ++
naltrexone Revia, Trexan opioid overdose, opioid dependence, alcohol dependence, OCD, SI, depression 50-100mg 4 hrs
(6-(beta)-naltrexol 13 hrs)
UGT-UB7
*  morphinane:
opioid(mu) antagonist +++
opioid(kappa) antagonist +
nefazodone Serzone, Dutonin, Nefadar depression 300-600mg 2-4 hrs
CYP-3A
(mCPP 4-8 hrs CYP-2D6)
*  phenylpiperazine:
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT1a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
* mCPP metabolite:
5-HT2b agonist ++
5-HT2c agonist ++
nemifitide N/A depression 18mg N/A *  pentapeptide:
nialamide Niamid depression 150-200mg N/A *  hydrazine:
MAOI
nifedipine Procardia, Adalat antihypertensitive, MAOI-tyramine hypertensive crisis, angina, migraine, bipolar disorder 30-120mg
(180 max)
2 hrs
CYP-3A (inhibitor)
*  dihydropyridine:
CCB
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
nimodipine Nimotop, Admon, Bloquel, Norton, Oxigen, Periplum, Regental, Vasoactin cerebral ischemia, subarachnoid hemorrhage, bipolar disorder 180-360mg 8-9 hrs
CYP-3A
*  dihydropyridine:
CCB
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
nisoxetine N/A depression 20-40mg N/A *  methylpropylamine:
NE reuptake inhibition ++
nitrazepam Mogadon, Benzolin, Eunoctin, Imeson, Insomin, Somnased, Somnite, Sonebon, insomnia 2.5 - 10mg 23 hrs
(18-28 hrs)
CYP-3A
CYP-2D6
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
nitroxazepine Sintamil depression, nocturnal enuresis 75-225mg N/A *  TCA
nomifensine Merital, Alival depression 100-200mg 2 hrs *  tetrahydroisoquinoline:
DA reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition ++
nortriptyline Pamelor, Aventyl depression, pain disorders 20 hrs (18-90 hrs)
CYP-2D6
50-100mg
(150mg max)
blood level:
50-150 ng/mL
*  dibenzocycloheptadiene:
secondary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition +++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
ACh antagonist
H1 antagonist
NE-alpha antagonist
noxiptiline Nogedal depression 25-200mg N/A *  dibenzocycloheptene:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
NE-alpha1 antagonist
H1 antagonist
olanzapine Zyprexa, Lanzac antipsychotic, mania, mood stabilizer, depression, reduce TD 5-15mg
(20mg max)
30 hrs
(21-54 hrs)
CYP-1A2
UGT-1A4
glucuronidation
*  thienobenzodiazepine:
neuroleptic:
DA2 antagonist +
DA1 antagonist +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT2c antagonist +
NE-alpha1 antagonist +
ACh(m) antagonist ++
H1 antagonist ++
omega-3 fatty acids OmegaBrite, Fisol bipolar disorder 2-10g N/A *  phospholipid:
EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid)
DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)
enhances membrane integrity
PKC inhibition
G-Protein transduction decrease
ondansetron Zofran, Zophren antiemetic 8-16mg22 2.9-4.5 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  imidazole:
5-HT3 antagonist
opipramol Insidon, Oprimol depression 150-300mg N/A *  dibenzoazepine:
TCA
sigma antagonist +++
5-HT2 antagonist
H1 antagonist
oxaflozane Conflictan depression 15-30mg 5 hrs *  morpholine:
5-HT increase
oxaprotiline N/A depression 100-200mg 23-29 hrs *  tetracyclic:
NE reuptake inhibition
oxazepam Serax, Adumbran, Alepam, Murelax, Serepax, Seresta, Vaben anxiolytic, alchohol withdrawal 20-60mg
(120mg max)
8 hrs
(5.7-10.9 hrs)
UGT-UB7 (inhibitor)
*  3-hydroxy benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
oxcarbazepine Trileptal anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder, pain disorder 1200-2400mg 2 hrs
9 hrs MHD (active)
*  tricyclic iminostilbene:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+ channel inhibition
oxitriptan (5-HTP) Levotonine, Pretonine, Serotonyl, Triptene depression 150-250mg 4 hrs *  5-hydroxytryptophan:
5-HT precursor
oxybate
(GHB)
Xyrem, Somsanit narcoleptic cataplexy, anesthesia, insomnia, stroke 6-9grams 0.5-1.0 hrs
tricarboxylic acid
(Krebs cycle)
*  gamma hydroxybutyrate
GABA-B agonist
GABA increase
oxycodone Oxycontin, Ducodal, Eubine, Eucodal, Eukodal, Pancodine, Percolone, Roxicodone, Roxilox analgesic, depression 60-180mg
(10-30mg every 4 hours)
3-5 hrs
CYP-2D6
UGT-2B7
*  morphinane:
opioid
opioid(mu) agonist
pagoclone N/A anxiolytic, GAD, panic disorder 0.15-0.60mg N/A *  cyclopyrrolone:
GABA-A partial agonist/modulator
paliperidone Invega antipsychotic, schizophrenia 6mg
(3-9mg)
23 hours
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A4
*  benzisoxazole:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2A antagonist
NE alpha-1 antagonist
NE alpha-2 antagonist
H1 antagonist
pargyline Eutonyl, Eudatine, Tenalin depression, hypertension 90mg N/A *  propargylamine:
MAOI
MAO-B inhibition ++
MAO-A inhibition +
paroxetine Paxil, Seroxat, Aropax, Deroxat depression, OCD, GAD, social anxiety, PTSD, panic disorder 20-60mg 15-21 hrs
CYP-2D6
(inhibitor)
*  phenylpiperidine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
ACh(m) antagonist
pemoline Cylert, Deltamine, Kethamed, Ronyl, Sigmadyn, Stimul, Stimuzol, Tradon, Volital ADD, ADHD, narcolepsy, depression 56.25-75mg
(112.5mg max)
12 hrs *  oxazolidinedione:
DA increase
pergolide Permax, Celance Parkinsons, depression, RLS, hyperprolactinemia 0.25-5mg CYP-2D6
(inhibitor only)
*  ergot alkaloid:
DA1 agonist
DA2 agonist
5-HT2b agonist
perphenazine Trilafon, Avomit, Decetan, Fentazin, Mutabon antipsychotic, antiemetic 4-16mg
(64mg max)
8-12 hrs *  piperazinyl phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
phenelzine Nardil, Stinerval, Monofen, Fenelzin, Kalgan, Nardelzine depression, social anxiety, GAD, panic disorder, OCD 30-60mg
(90 mg max)
12 hrs *  hydrazine:
MAOI
GABA transaminase inhibition
phenoxypropazine Drazine depression N/A N/A *  
MAOI
phentermine Adipex, Banobese, Fastin, Ionamin, Zantryl obesity, depression 20-30mg 20 hrs
(7-20 hrs)
*  phenethylamine:
NE release ++
DA release +
phentolamine Regitine antihypertensive, MAOI-tyramine hypertensive crisis, Raynaud Syndrome 5mg injectable 19 min *  imidazoline:
NE alpha antagonist
phenytoin Dilantin, Di-Hydan, Epanutin, Epilantin, Phenhydan, Zentropil anticonvulsant, aggression, mood disorders 300-600mg
blood-level:
10-20 mcg/mL
22 hrs
(7-42 hrs)
CYP-2C19
CYP-2C8/9
UGT-2B15
*  imidazolidinedione:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+ channel inhibition
pimozide Orap, Antalon, Opiran, Pirium, Oralep antipsychotic, Tourette's 2-12mg
(20mg max)
110 hrs
CYP-3A
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor only)
*  diphenylbutylpiperidine:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
DA3 antagonist ++
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT7 antagonist
Ca2+(T) channel inhibitor
pinazepam Domar anxiolytic 10mg N/A *  propargylic:
benzodiazepine
BZD agonist
pindolol Visken, Durapindol, Pectobloc Pinbetol, hypertension, angina, depression 10-60mg 8 hrs
(7-15 hrs)
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
*  aryloxypropanolamine:
BB
NE- beta antagonist
5-HT1a antagonist
pipamperone Dipiperon, Piperonyl antipsychotic, antiemetic 20-160
(400mg max)
N/A *  butyrophenone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist
NE-alpha antagonist
pipotiazine Piportil antipsychotic 5-20mg 11-12 hrs *  piperidine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
DA3 antagonist +++
piracetam Nootropil, Axonyl, Cerebrospan, Myocalm, Stimucortex, Normabrain nootropic, Alzheimer's, cerebral ischemia, myoclonus 1500-2500mg 6-8 hrs *  pyrrolidine:
membrane fluidity increase
piribedil Trivastal cerebral ischemia, Parkinsons, depression 50-100mg 2-7 hrs *  piperazine:
DA agonist
pirlindole
(pyrazidol)
N/A depression 150-300mg N/A *  pyrazino carbazole:
RIMA
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
pivhydrazine Neomarsilid, Tersavid N/A N/A N/A *  hydrazine:
MAOI
pramipexole Mirapex, Sifrol Parkinsons, depression, RLS, hyperprolactinemia 1.5-4.5mg 8-12 hrs
renal excretion
*  benzthiazole:
DA2 agonist ++
(pre > post)
DA3 agonist +++
prazepam Centrax anxiolytic, hypnotic 5-30mg 60 hrs
glucuronoconjugation
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
prazosin Minipress, Alpress, Hypotens, Hypovase, Sinetens antihypertensive, MAOI-tyramine hypertensive crisis 6-20mg
(40mg max)
2-3 hrs
demethylation
conjugation
*  quinazoline:
NE alpha1 antagonist
pregabalin Lyrica anticonvulsant, anxiety disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, pain disorders 150-600mg 6 hrs *  isobutylgaba:
GABA increase
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
primidone Mysoline anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder 250-1000mg 10 hrs
CYP-2C19
*  pyrimidinedione:
barbiturate
CNS depressant
prochlorperazine Compazine, Stemetil antipsychotic, antiemetic, Ménière's Disease, labyrinthitis, vertigo 10-20mg
(40mg max)
9 hrs *  piperazine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
DA3 antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
procyclidine Kemadren, Arpicoline, Osnervan, Procyclid Parkinson's, AP-induced EPS 10-30mg 12 hrs *  pyrrolidinyl:
ACh(m) antagonist
profenamine
(ethopropazine)
Pardidol, Parsidol, Parsitan, Dibutil, Lysivane, Rodipal Parkinsons, AP-induced EPS 100-600mg N/A *  phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
ACh(m) antagonist
promazine Sparine antipsychotic, antiemetic, hiccups, alcoholic hallucinations 50-1200mg N/A *  phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist +
DA2 antagonist +
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
H1 antagonist ++
propranolol Inderal hypertension, angina, arrhythmia, tremor, migraine, panic disorder, akathisia, pheochromocytoma 40-240mg
(640 max)
4 hrs
CYP-1A2
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
UGT-2B7
UGT-1A9
*  aryloxypropanolamine:
NE-beta antagonist
propizepine Vagran depression, parasympatholytic 50-200mg 8 hrs *  benzopyridodiazepine:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
ACh(m) antagonist
propoxyphene Darvon, Dolene, Margesic, Propoxy analgesic 65-390mg 6-12 hrs
(norpropoxyphene 30-36 hrs)
CYP-3A (inhibitor)
CYP-2C8/9
*  diphenylbutanol:
opioid
opioid agonist
protriptyline Vivactal, Triptil, Concordin, Concordine, Maximed depression 15-60mg 55-198 hrs *  dibenzocycloheptene:
secondary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition +++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
ACh(m) antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
pyrazidole
(pirlindole)
N/A depression 150-300mg 75-225mg N/A *  pyrazino carbazole:
RIMA
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
pyrovalerone Centroton, Thymergix psychostimulant, depression 20-80mg 1 hr *  pyrrolidine:
DA reuptake inhibition
quazepam Doral, Dormalin, Prosedar, Quazium, Selepam, Temodal insomnia 7.5-15mg
(30mg max)
39 hrs *  trifluoroethyl benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
quetiapine Seroquel antipsychotic 300-500mg
(800mg max)
6 hrs
CYP-3A
glucuronidation
*  dibenzothiazepine:
neuroleptic:
DA2 antagonist +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
H1 antagonist +
sigma antagonist
quinupramine Kinupril, Adeprim, Kevopril, depression 2.5-15mg 9 hrs *  dibenzoazepine:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
ACh(m) antagonist
ramelteon Rozerem insomnia 16-64mg N/A *  tricyclic indan analogue:
melatonin M1 receptor agonist +++
melatonin M2 receptor agonist +++
rasagiline Azilect Parkinsons, depression, Alzheimer's 0.5-1.0mg
3 hrs
CYP-1A2
glucoronidation
*  propargylamine:
MAOI
MAO-B inhibition +++
reboxetine Edronax, Vestra depression 4-12mg 12 hrs
CYP-3A
*  benzyl morpholine
NE reuptake inhibition +++
remoxipride Roxiam antipsychotic 50-150mg 4-6 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  substituted benzamide:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +
sigma antagonist +++
riluzole Rilutek ALS, depression, bipolar disorder 100mg 12 hrs
CYP-1A2
*  benzothiazole:
glutamate release inhibitor
Na+ channel inhibition
risperidone Risperdal, Risperidal, Belivon, Risperin, Rispolept, Rispolin antipsychotic, depression AP: 4-16mg

AD: 0.5mg-2mg
RM: 3 hrs
SM: 20 hrs
CYP-3A
P-gp
*  benzisoxazole:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist ++
5-HT2a antagonist +++
NE-alpha(1,2) antagonist ++
H1 antagonist +
ritanserin Tisterton sleep architecture (increase slow-wave; decrease REM), depression (AD augmentation), dysthymia, schizophrenia (AP augmentation), AP-induced EPS 5-10mg
(30mg max)
39 hrs
(20-60 hrs)
*  thiazolopyrimidine:
5-HT2a antagonist +++
5-HT2b antagonist +++
5-HT2c antagonist +++
rolipram N/A depression, multiple sclerosis, AIDS 0.75-1.5mg 12 hrs *  pyrrolidinone:
cAMP PDE-IV inhibition
TNF release inhibition
ropinirole Requip Parkinsons, depression, RLS 0.75-3.0mg 6 hrs
CYP-1A2
CYP-3A
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor only)
*  dipropylamine:
DA3 agonist ++
DA2 agonist +
roxindole N/A depression 7.5-30mg N/A *  tetrahydropyridine:
DA2 agonist +
(pre > post)
DA3 agonist ++
5-HT1a agonist ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition
safrazine Safra depression, social anxiety, GAD, OCD 5mg N/A *  pyrimidine:
MAOI
selegiline (l-deprenyl) Eldepryl, Emsam, Jumex, Carbex, Eldeprine, Atapryl, Jumexal, Lesotal, Movergan Parkinsons, depression, Alzheimer's 5-30mg
(60mg max)
6mg/24hr patch
9mg/24hr patch
12mg/24hr patch
2-10 hrs
18-25hr patches
CYP-2C19
CYP-2B6
*  propargylamine:
MAOI
MAO-B inhibition ++
MAO-A inhibition +
sertindole Serlect, Serdolect antipsychotic 20-24mg 60-73 hrs *  imidazolidinone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2a/c antagonist +++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
sertraline Zoloft, Lustral depression, PTSD, OCD, panic disorder 50-200mg 26 hrs
CYP-2C19 (inhibitor)
CYP-2D6
CYP-2B6
*  naphtalamine:
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
DA reuptake inhibition +
sibutramine Meridia, Reductil obesity, depression 5-15mg 1-2 hrs
CYP-3A
metabolites: 15 hrs
*  dimethylamine+
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
NE reuptake inhibition ++
DA reuptake inhibition +
sodium valproate Depacon, Epilim, Valpro anticonvulsant, migraine, bipolar disorder (mood-stabilizer) 750-3000mg
(50-125mcg/ml)
9-16 hrs
CYP-2C9 (inhibitor)
CYP-2A6
glucoronidation
*  carboxylic acid:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+(T) channel inhibition
GABA increase:
1. GABA transaminase inhibition
2. SSAD dehydrogenase inhibition
sulpiride Sulparex, Dogmatil, Dolmatil, Valirem antipsychotic, depression, dysthymia AP: 400-2400mg

AD: 50-200mg
8 hrs
renal excretion
*  benzamide:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +
(pre > post)
DA3/4 antagonist ++
tandospirone N/A depression, anxiolytic N/A N/A *  azapirone:
5-HT1a partial agonist
talipexole N/A Parkinsons, depression, PTSD N/A N/A *  
D2 agonist
NE alpha2 agonist
temazepam Restoril insomnia 10 - 20mg 8 hrs
CYP-2B6
CYP-3A
UGT-2B7
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
tetrindole N/A depression 150-300mg N/A *  pyrazino-indole tetracyclic:
RIMA
Ca2+ channel inhibition
thioridazine Mellaril antipsychotic 30-200mg
(800mg max)
7-9 hrs
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
*  phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist
DA2 antagonist
thiothixene Navane antipsychotic 15-30mg
(60 max)
34 hrs
CYP-1A2
*  thioxanthene:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist
DA2 antagonist
thyroxine (T4) Synthroid, Levoxyl, Levothroid hypothyroidism, depression, bipolar disorder 100-400mcg 6-7 days
glucuronoconjugation
*  thyroid hormone:
NE receptor sensitivity increase
MAO inhibition
tiagabine Gabitril anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder 32-56mg 7-9 hrs
CYP-3A
*  piperidine:
GABA reuptake inhibition
tianeptine Ardix, Stablon depression 25-50mg 2-3 hrs
b-oxidation
n-desmethylation
*  dibenzothiazepine:
5-HT reuptake accelerator
tiospirone N/A antipsychotic 50-75mg N/A *  
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
5-HT2a/c antagonist +++
sigma ligand
tolcapone Tasmar Parkinsons, depression 200-600mg 3 hrs
glucuronidation
*  nitrobenzophenone:
COMT inhibition
toloxatone Humoryl, Perenum depression 600mg 1-2 hrs *  oxazolidinone:
RIMA
tomoxetine
(atomoxetine)
Strattera ADD, ADHD, depression 50-150mg
(1.2-1.8mg/kg)
5 hrs
(5-24 hrs)
CYP-2D6
*  tolyloxypropylamine:
NE reuptake inhibition +++
topiramate Topamax anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder 200-400mg
(1600 max)
21 hrs
glucuronidation
CYP-2C19
*  monosaccharide:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
GABA-A receptor enhancement
GLU antagonist
tramadol Ultram, Contramal, Topalgic, Zamudol, Zumalgic analgesic 100-400mg 6-8 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A
glucuronidation
*  opioid:
opioid(mu) agonist
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
tranylcypromine Parnate, Parmodalin, Sicoton, Transamin, Transapin, Tylciprine depression 20-60mg
(120mg max)
2 hrs
CYP-2C19 (inhibitor only)
*  cyclopropylamine:
MAOI
trazodone Desyrel, Molipaxin, Pragmarel, Thombran, Trazodil, Trazolan, Trittico depression, insomnia AD: 100-600mg
hypnotic: 25-150mg
5-9 hrs
CYP-3A
mCPP: CYP-2D6
*  phenylpiperazine:
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT1a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
* mCPP metabolite:
5-HT2b agonist ++
5-HT2c agonist ++
triazolam Halcion, Songar, Triazoral, Alpralid insomnia 0.125-0.5mg 3 hrs
(1.5-5.5)
CYP-3A
*  triazolo benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
trifluoperazine Stelazine, Terfluzine, Stalabid, Eskazinyl, Jatroneural, Sedizine antipsychotic, anxiolytic 4-20mg
(40 max)
10-14 hrs
UGT-1A4
*  piperazine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist
DA2 antagonist
trifluopromazine Vesprin, Psyquil, Psiquil, Siquil, Vesprin antipsychotic, antiemetic 25-200mg N/A *  phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
trihexyphenidyl Artane Parkinsons, AP-induced EPS, antispasmodic 1.5-15.0mg 8-10 hrs *  ACh(m) antagonist
H1 antagonist
triiodothyronine (T3)
(also liothyronine)
Cytomel hypothyroidism, depression, bipolar disorder 25-100mcg 1-2 days *  thyroid hormone:
NE receptor sensitivity increase
MAO inhibition
trimipramine Surmontil, Rhotrimine depression 50-200mg
(300mg max)
24 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A
CYP-2C19
*  dibenzazepine:
tertiary TCA
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Ca2+ channel inhibition
ACh(m) antagonist
H1 antagonist
valproate Depakote, Epival, Elvetium, Everiden, Novoseven, Valcote, Valnar anticonvulsant, migraine, bipolar disorder (mood-stabilizer) 750-3000mg
(50-125mcg/ml)
9-16 hrs
CYP-2C9 (inhibitor)
CYP-2A6
glucoronidation
*  carboxylic acid:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+(T) channel inhibition
GABA increase:
1. GABA transaminase inhibition
2. SSAD dehydrogenase inhibition
valproic acid Depakene, Convulex, Depakine, Depalept, Epilim, Ergenyl, Leptilan, Orfiril, Valporal anticonvulsant 750-3000mg
(50-125mcg/ml)
9-16 hrs
CYP-2C9 (inhibitor)
CYP-2A6
glucoronidation
*  carboxylic acid:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+(T) channel inhibition
GABA increase:
1. GABA transaminase inhibition
2. SSAD dehydrogenase inhibition
venlafaxine Effexor, Efexor, Trevilor, Vandral, Dobupal depression, anxiety disorders, GAD, ADD, ADHD, OCD, fibromyalgia 75-300mg
(600mg max)
5-7 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  
cyclohexanol:
SNRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition ++
DA reuptake inhibition +
verapamil Calan, Isoptin, Azupamil, Cardibeltin, Civicor, Cordilox, Durasoptin, Veramex, Verelen hypertension, angina, arrhythmia, bipolar disorder 240-480mg 5-12 hrs
CYP-2C19
CYP-3A (inhibitor)
CYP-2C8/9
*  valeronitrile:
CCB
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
vigabatrin Sabril anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder 2000-4000mg 5-8 hrs *  gamma-vinyl-GABA:
GABA increase
GABA transaminase inhibition
vilazodone Viibryd depression 40mg 25 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  phenylpiperazine:
5-HT reuptake inhibitor
5-HT1a partial agonist
viloxazine Vivalan, Catatrol depression, narcolepsy, cataplexy 15-30mg 2-5 hrs *  morpholine:
NE reuptake inhibitor +++
viqualine N/A depression, alcohol dependency 100-200mg 12 hrs *  quinoline:
5-HT reuptake inhibition
5-HT release
yohimbine Aphrodyne, Procomil, Procamil, Yocon sympathicolytic, myDA reuptake inhibitionatic, penile dysfunction, depression 8.1-16.2mg 30-60 minutes
CYP-2D6
*  indole alkaloid:
NE-alpha2 antagonist
5-HT1a agonist
5-HT1b/d antagonist
DA increase
NE increase
5-HT decreased
zaleplon Sonata insomnia 5-20mg 1.5 hrs
CYP-3A
aldehyde oxidase
*  pyrazolopyrimidine:
GABA-A BZD(1) agonist
zimeldine Zelmid depression, migraine, obesity 75-300mg 8 hrs *  dimethylallylamine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
ziprasidone Geodon, Zeldox antipsychotic, depression 40-160mg
(200mg max)
7 hrs
aldeyde oxidase
*  
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist ++
DA3 antagonist ++
5-HT1a agonist ++
5-HT1d antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist +++
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
zolpidem Ambien, Stilnox insomnia 5 - 10mg 2.6 hrs
CYP-1A2
CYP-3A
CYP-2C8/9
*  imidazopyridine:
GABA-A BZD(1) agonist
zonisamide Zonegran anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder 100-600mg 50-70 hrs
CYP-3A
glucuronidation
*  sulfonamide:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+(T) channel inhibition
DA increase
zopiclone Imovane, Rhovane, Zimovane insomnia 3.75-7.5mg 5 hrs
CYP-2C8/9
CYP-3A
*  cyclopyrrolone:
GABA-A BZD(1) agonist
zotepine Zoleptil antipsychotic 100-300mg N/A *  
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist
zuclopenthixol Clopixol antipsychotic 10-50mg
(200mg max)
20 hrs *  thioxanthene:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist
DA2 antagonist



Psychiatric and Associated Drugs



Abbreviations  or   *  

Generic Name

Trade Name

Trade Name Generic Name Usage Dosage Half-Life
Metabolism
Properties
Abilify aripiprazole antipsychotic, depression, mania 15-30mg 75 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A4
*  quinolinone:
DSS
DA2 partial agonist +++
DA3 antagonist +++
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT1a agonist ++
Abilitat aripiprazole antipsychotic, depression, mania 15-30mg 75 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A4
*  quinolinone:
DSS
DA2 partial agonist +++
DA3 antagonist +++
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT1a agonist ++
Abstem calcium carbimide alcoholism 100-200mg 1.5 hrs *  carbimide:
acetaldehyde- deshydrogenase inhibition
Actomol mebanazine depression N/A N/A *  hydrazine:
MAOI
Adalat nifedipine antihypertensitive, MAOI-tyramine hypertensive crisis, angina, migraine, bipolar disorder 30-120mg
(180 max)
2 hrs
CYP-3A (inhibitor)
*  dihydropyridine:
CCB
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
Adapin doxepin depression, anxiety, 75-150mg
(300mg max)
8-24 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzoxepin:
tertiary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
ACh(m) antagonist
H1 antagonist +++
H2 antagonist +++
NE- alpha1 antagonist
Adderall amphetamine
(mixed salts)
ADD, ADHD, narcolepsy, depression 5-40mg
(60mg max)
10-25 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  psychostimulant:
NE release +++
DA release ++
DA reuptake inhibition +
NE reuptake inhibition +
Adipex phentermine obesity, depression 20-30mg 20 hrs
(7-20 hrs)
*  phenethylamine:
NE release ++
DA release +
Akatinol memantine Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, depression, pain disorders, neuroprotective 20-40mg 60-80 hrs *  cyclic amine:
NMDA antagonist
Akineton biperiden Parkinsons, AP-induced EPS, AD-induced sweating 2-6mg N/A
hydroxylation
*  piperidine:
anticholinergic
ACh(m) antagonist
Alertec modafinil narcolepsy, EDS, depression 200-400mg 15 hrs
hydrolysis
*  diphenyl methylsulfinyl:
GLU release
GABA decrease
hypocretin (orexin)agonist
Alival nomifensine depression 100-200mg 2 hrs *  tetrahydroisoquinoline:
DA reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition ++
Almazine lorazepam anxiolytic, insomnia 2-10mg
9-24 hrs
UGT-UB7
*  3-hydroxy benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Almirid dihydroergocryptine (DHEC) nootropic, cerebrovascular insufficiency, dementia, neuroprotection, migraine 10-40mg 2.6-5.1 hrs *  ergot alkaloid:
DA agonist
NE- alpha antagonist
MAOI
Ambien zolpidem insomnia 5 - 10mg 2.6 hrs
CYP-1A2
CYP-3A
CYP-2C8/9
*  imidazopyridine:
GABA-A BZD(1) agonist
Amitril amitriptyline depression, insomnia, anorexia, pain disorders, migraine 50-200mg
(300mg max)
20 hrs
(10-50 hrs)
CYP-2D6
CYP-2C19
CYP-1A2
P-gp
*  dibenzocycloheptadiene:
tertiary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT2 antagonist ++
ACh antagonist
H1 antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Anafranil clomipramine depression, OCD 50-250mg 19-37 hrs
CYP-1A2
*  dibenzazepine:
tertiary TCA
5- HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
ACh antagonist
NE-alpha antagonist
Antabuse disulfiram alcoholism 125-500mg 54-72 hrs
renal clearance
*  
acetaldehyde-deshydrogenase inhibition
Anxon ketazolam anxiolytic, insomnia, alcohol withdrawal 15-60mg
(120mg max)
2 hrs *  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Aotal acamprosate antidipsotropic, alcohol dependence, alcohol withdrawal, bipolar disorder 1200-1800mg 13-28 hrs
renal excretion
*  homotaurine:
GLU release inhibitor
GABAergic
Aphrodyne yohimbine sympathicolytic, myDA reuptake inhibitionatic, penile dysfunction, depression 8.1-16.2mg 30-60 minutes
CYP-2D6
*  indole alkaloid:
NE-alpha2 antagonist
5-HT1a agonist
5-HT1b/d antagonist
DA increase
NE increase
5-HT decreased
Apotex alprazolam anxiety, GAD, panic disorder 1.5-4.0mg
(10mg max)
11.2 hrs
(6-26 hrs)
CYP-3A
*  triazolo benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
5-HT release
Aquachloral chloral hydrate insomnia 500 - 1000mg 8-10 hrs *  CNS depressant:
GABA-A increase
Aricept donepezil Alzheimer's, enhance memory and cognition 5-10mg 70 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A4
*  piperidine:
cholinergic
ACh acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
Ariza gepirone depression, anxiety 10-90mg 1-2 hrs
CYP-3A
CYP-2D6 (metabolite)
*  azapirone:
5-HT1a full agonist (pre)
5-HT1a partial agonist (post)
NE-alpha2 antagonist
(1-PP metabolite)
Aropax paroxetine depression, OCD, GAD, social anxiety, PTSD, panic disorder 20-60mg 15-21 hrs
CYP-2D6
(inhibitor)
*  phenylpiperidine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
ACh(m) antagonist
Arpin dothiepin depression 50-225mg 22 hrs
(11-30 hrs)
CYP-1A2
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzothiepine:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
ACh(m) antagonist
Artane trihexyphenidyl Parkinsons, AP-induced EPS, antispasmodic 1.5-15.0mg 8-10 hrs *  
ACh(m) antagonist
H1 antagonist
Asendin amoxapine depression (psychotic) 200-400mg
(600mg max)
8 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzoxazepine:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
DA antagonist
5-HT2 antagonist
5-HT3 antagonist
Aseranox ketanserin hypertension, preeclampsia, Raynaud's 60-120mg
(160mg max)
15 hrs *  quinazolinedione:
NMDA antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
H1 antagonist
Atarax hydroxyzine allergy, sedative 50-100mg 20 hrs *  piperazine:
antihistamine
H1 antagonist
ACh(m) antagonist
Athymil mianserin depression 30-90mg 10-17 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-1A2
(inhibitor)
UGT-1A4
*  tetracyclic:
NE-alpha2 antagonist
5-HT2 antagonist
H1 antagonist
Ativan lorazepam anxiolytic, insomnia 2-10mg
9-24 hrs
UGT-UB7
*  3-hydroxy benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Aurorix moclobemide depression, social phobia 150 - 600mg
(1200 max)
1-2 hrs
CYP-2C19
*  benzamide:
RIMA
Aventyl nortriptyline depression, pain disorders 50-100mg
(150mg max)
blood level:
50-150 ng/mL
20 hrs (18-90 hrs)
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzocycloheptadiene:
secondary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition +++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
ACh antagonist
H1 antagonist
NE-alpha antagonist
Axura memantine Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, depression, pain disorders, neuroprotective 20-40mg 60-80 hrs *  cyclic amine:
NMDA antagonist
Azilect rasagiline Parkinsons, depression, Alzheimer's 0.5-1.0mg
3 hrs
CYP-1A2
glucoronidation
*  propargylamine:
MAOI
MAO-B inhibition +++
Benadryl diphenhydramine allergy, sedative, Parkinsonism, AP-induced EPS 75-200mg 2.4-9.3 hrs *  ethanolamine:
antihistamine
H1 antagonist
ACh(m) antagonist
Benzadrine amphetamine ADD, ADHD, narcolepsy, depression, AD sexual side-effects 5-30mg
(40mg max)
10-25 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  psychostimulant:
NE release +++
DA release ++
DA reuptake inhibition +
NE reuptake inhibition +
Biphetamine amphetamine
(mixed salts)
ADD, ADHD, narcolepsy 5-30mg
(40mg max)
10-25 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  psychostimulant:
NE release +++
DA release ++
DA reuptake inhibition +
NE reuptake inhibition +
Bolvidon mianserin depression 30-90mg 10-17 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-1A2
(inhibitor)
UGT-1A4
*  tetracyclic:
NE-alpha2 antagonist
5-HT2 antagonist
H1 antagonist
Buprenex buprenorphine injectable analgesic, depression, opioid dependence 1.2-3.2mg 2.2 hrs
(1.2-7.2 hrs)
*  morphinane:
opioid
opioid(mu) partial agonist
opioid(kappa) antagonist
Buronil melperone antipsychotic 100mg N/A *  butyrophenone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2 antagonist
Buspar buspirone anxiety, GAD, IBS, AD augment 20-30mg
(60mg max)
2-3 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  azapirone:
5-HT1a full agonist (pre)
5-HT1a partial agonist (post)
DA2 partial agonist
* 1-PP metabolite:
NE-alpha2 antagonist
Calan verapamil hypertension, angina, arrhythmia, bipolar disorder 240-480mg 5-12 hrs
CYP-2C19
CYP-3A (inhibitor)
CYP-2C8/9
*  valeronitrile:
CCB
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
Campral acamprosate antidipsotropic, alcohol dependence, alcohol withdrawal, bipolar disorder 1200-1800mg 13-28 hrs
renal excretion
*  homotaurine:
GLU release inhibitor
GABAergic
Cantor minaprine depression, nootropic 100-250mg 2-3 hrs *  phenylpyridazine:
DA increase
ACh increase
ACh(m) agonist
5-HT2b antagonist
PKC activation
Carbolith lithium bipolar disorder, depression (augmentor), schizoaffective, neuroprotection, neurotrophic bipolar:
900-1500mg
(0.8-1.2 mEq/L)

unipolar:
300-600mg
(0.4-0.6 mEq/L)
14-30 hrs
renal excretion
*  alkali metal Li+ ion:
5-HT autoreceptor antagonist
GLU decreased
PI turnover decreased
PKC decreased
GSK-3b decreased
MAP kinase increase
Bcl-2 increase
BDNF increase
NFG increase
Catapres clonidine hypertension, ADD, ADHD, anxiety, aggression, opioid withdrawal, motor tics, Tourette's, migraine 0.2-0.6mg
(2.4mg max)
12-16 hrs *  imidazoline:
NE-alpha2 agonist
Celexa citalopram depression 20 - 60mg 35 hrs
CYP-2C19
*  bicyclic phthalane:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
Centrax prazepam anxiolytic, hypnotic 5-30mg 60 hrs
glucuronoconjugation
BZD, BZD agonist
Centroton pyrovalerone psychostimulant, depression 20-80mg 1 hr *  pyrrolidine:
DA reuptake inhibition
Cibalith-S lithium bipolar disorder, depression (augmentor), schizoaffective, neuroprotection, neurotrophic bipolar:
900-1500mg
(0.8-1.2 mEq/L)

unipolar:
300-600mg
(0.4-0.6 mEq/L)
14-30 hrs
renal excretion
*  alkali metal Li+ ion:
5-HT autoreceptor antagonist
GLU decreased
PI turnover decreased
PKC decreased
GSK-3b decreased
MAP kinase increase
Bcl-2 increase
BDNF increase
NFG increase
Cipralex escitalopram depression, panic disorder 10-30mg 27-32 hrs
CYP-2C19
*  bicyclic phthalane:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
Cipramil citalopram depression 20 - 60mg 35 hrs
CYP-2C19
*  bicyclic phthalane:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
Cledial medifoxamine depression 100-150mg 1 hr *  amine
DA reuptake inhibition
5- HT2a antagonist
5-HT2c antagonist
Clopixol clopenthixol antipsychotic 10-50mg
(200mg max)
20 hrs *  thioxanthene:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist
DA2 antagonist
Clozaril clozapine antipsychotic, depression, reduce TD 150-900mg 12 hrs
(4-66 hrs)
*  dibenzodiazepine:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +
DA4 antagonist +
5-HT2a/b/c ++
5-HT6/7 +
NE- alpha1 antagonist ++
H1 antagonist +++
Ach(m) antagonist +++
Cogentin benztropine Parkinsons, AP-induced EPS, antispasmodic 0.5-6.0mg N/A *  methanesulfonate:
anticholinergic
ACh(m) antagonist
H1 antagonist
Compazine prochlorperazine antipsychotic, antiemetic 10-20mg
(40mg max)
antipsychotic, antiemetic, Ménière's Disease, labyrinthitis, vertigo *  piperazine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
DA3 antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
Comtan entacapone Parkinsons 400-1600mg 1 hr
glucuronidation
*  nitrocatechol:
COMT inhibition
Concerta methylphenidate ADD, ADHD, depression, CFS 18-54mg 3.5 hrs *  psychostimulant:
DA reuptake inhibition
NE reuptake inhibition
NE release
Conflictan oxaflozane depression 15-30mg 5 hrs *  morpholine:
5-HT increase
Consonar brofaromine depression, social phobia 50-150mg 15 hrs
CYP-1A2
*  piperidine:
RIMA
5-HT reuptake inhibition
Cylert pemoline ADD, ADHD, narcolepsy, depression 56.25-75mg
(112.5mg max)
12 hrs *  oxazolidinedione:
DA increase
Cymbalta duloxetine depression 40-120mg 10-15 hrs *  thiophenepropanamine:
SNRI
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
Cytomel triiodothyronine hypothyroidism, depression, bipolar disorder 25-100mcg 1-2 days *  thyroid hormone:
NE receptor sensitivity increase
MAO inhibition
Dalmane flurazepam insomnia 15-30mg 2-3 hrs
(N-desalkylflurazepam: 80 hrs)
CYP-3A4
*  2-keto benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Darvon propoxyphene analgesic 65-390mg 6-12 hrs
(norpropoxyphene 30-36 hrs)
CYP-3A (inhibitor)
CYP-2C8/9
*  diphenylbutanol:
opioid
opioid agonist
Deanxit melitracen 10mg + flupentixol 0.5mg depression, anxiety, asthenia 1-2 tablets N/A *  TCA + neuroleptic
Depacon sodium valproate (injectable) anticonvulsant, migraine, bipolar disorder (mood-stabilizer) 750-3000mg
(50-125mcg/ml)
9-16 hrs
CYP-2C9 (inhibitor)
CYP-2A6
glucoronidation
*  carboxylic acid:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+(T) channel inhibition
GABA increase:
1. GABA transaminase inhibition
2. SSAD dehydrogenase inhibition
Depakene valproic acid anticonvulsant 750-3000mg
(50-125mcg/ml)
9-16 hrs
CYP-2C9 (inhibitor)
CYP-2A6
glucoronidation
*  carboxylic acid:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+(T) channel inhibition
GABA increase:
1. GABA transaminase inhibition
2. SSAD dehydrogenase inhibition
Depakote valproate, divalproex anticonvulsant, migraine, bipolar disorder (mood-stabilizer) 750-3000mg
(50-125mcg/ml)
9-16 hrs
CYP-2C9 (inhibitor)
CYP-2A6
glucoronidation
*  carboxylic acid:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+(T) channel inhibition
GABA increase:
1. GABA transaminase inhibition
2. SSAD dehydrogenase inhibition
Deprilept maprotiline depression 75-150mg 27-58 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  tetracyclic:
NE reuptake inhibition ++
ACh(m) antagonist
Deproxin fluoxetine depression, PMDD, OCD, bulimia 20-60mg
(120mg max)
4-6 days
(norfluoxetine 9-14 days)
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2C9
*  propylamine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2c antagonist
NE increase
Deracyn adinazolam depression, anxiety, panic disorder 30-90mg 3 hrs
P450-3A
*  triazolo benzodiazepine:
BZD partial agonist
NE release
5-HT release
Daroxat paroxetine depression, OCD, GAD, social anxiety, PTSD, panic disorder 20-60mg 15-21 hrs
CYP-2D6
(inhibitor)
*  phenylpiperidine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
ACh(m) antagonist
Deplin L-methylfolate depression, low serum folate 7.5mg 6-8 hrs *  folate:
DA, NE, 5-HT increase
Desoxyn methamphetamine ADD, ADHD, obesity 10-25mg 10-25 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  psychostimulant:
5-HT release
NE release +++
DA release ++
DA reuptake inhibition
NE reuptake inhibition
Desyrel trazodone depression, insomnia AD: 100-600mg
hypnotic: 25-150mg
5-9 hrs
CYP-3A
mCPP: CYP-2D6
*  phenylpiperazine:
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT1a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
* mCPP metabolite:
5-HT2b agonist ++
5-HT2c agonist ++
Dexedrine d-amphetamine ADD, ADHD, narcolepsy, obesity 5-30mg
(40mg max)
10-25 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  psychostimulant:
NE release +++
DA release ++
DA reuptake inhibition +
NE reuptake inhibition +
DextroStat d-amphetamine ADD, ADHD, narcolepsy, obesity 5-30mg
(40mg max)
10-25 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  psychostimulant:
NE release +++
DA release ++
DA reuptake inhibition +
NE reuptake inhibition +
Dilantin phenytoin anticonvulsant, aggression, mood disorders 300-600mg
blood-level:
10-20 mcg/mL
*  
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+ channel inhibition
Dipiperon pipamperone antipsychotic, antiemetic 20-160
(400mg max)
N/A *  butyrophenone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist
NE-alpha antagonist
Dixoran melitracen depression 75-225mg N/A *  TCA
Dixarit clonidine hypertension, ADD, ADHD, anxiety, aggression, opioid withdrawal, motor tics, Tourette's, migraine 0.2-0.6mg
(2.4mg max)
12-16 hrs *  imidazoline:
NE-alpha2 agonist
Dizac diazepam (injectable) anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, seizures, status epilepticus, athetosus, tetanus, alcohol withdrawal, surgical sedation 10-40mg 20 hrs
CYP-2C19
CYP-3A4
*  2-keto benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Dolophine methadone opioid dependence, analgesic 15-40mg 28-35 hrs
CYP-2D6
(inhibitor)
CYP-3A
UGT-UB7
*  diphenylheptane:
opioid:
opioid(mu) agonist
Dogmatil sulpiride antipsychotic, depression, dysthymia AP: 400-2400mg

AD: 50-200mg
8 hrs
renal excretion
*  benzamide:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +
(pre > post)
DA3/4 antagonist ++
Dolene propoxyphene analgesic 65-390mg 6-12 hrs
(norpropoxyphene 30-36 hrs)
CYP-3A (inhibitor)
CYP-2C8/9
*  diphenylbutanol:
opioid
opioid agonist
Dolmatil sulpiride antipsychotic, depression, dysthymia AP: 400-2400mg

AD: 50-200mg
8 hrs
renal excretion
*  benzamide:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +
(pre > post)
DA3/4 antagonist ++
Dopar l-dopa
(levodopa)
Parkinsons, depression 2-8grams 1-2 hrs *  catecholamine:
DA increase
Domar pinazepam anxiolytic 10mg N/A *  propargylic:
benzodiazepine
BZD agonist
Doral quazepam insomnia 7.5-15mg
(30mg max)
39 hrs *  trifluoroethyl benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Dormonoct loprazolam insomnia 1-2mg 8 hrs *  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Dostinex cabergoline Hyperprolactinemia, Parkinsons, Depression, RLS 0.25-1.0mg
Twice a week
60 hrs
Hydrolysis
*  ergoline:
DA2 agonist
5-HT2b agonist
Duralith lithium bipolar disorder, depression (augmentor), schizoaffective, neuroprotection, neurotrophic bipolar:
900-1500mg
(0.8-1.2 mEq/L)

unipolar:
300-600mg
(0.4-0.6 mEq/L)
14-30 hrs
renal excretion
*  alkali metal Li+ ion:
5-HT autoreceptor antagonist
GLU decreased
PI turnover decreased
PKC decreased
GSK-3b decreased
MAP kinase increase
Bcl-2 increase
BDNF increase
NFG increase
Dutonin nefazodone depression 300-600mg 2-4 hrs
CYP-3A
(mCPP 4-8 hrs CYP-2D6)
*  phenylpiperazine:
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT1a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
* mCPP metabolite:
5-HT2b agonist ++
5-HT2c agonist ++
Dynacirc isradipine hypertension, bipolar disorder, depression 5-10mg
(20mg max)
8 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  dihydropyridine:
CCB
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
Ecotril dibenzepine depression 240-480mg N/A *  dibenzepine:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
Ectris flibanserin depression 50-200mg 5.0-6.5 hrs *  benzimidazol:
5-HT1a agonist
5- HT2a antagonist
Edronax reboxetine depression 4-12mg 12 hrs
CYP-3A
*  benzyl morpholine
NE reuptake inhibition +++
Effexor venlafaxine depression, anxiety disorders, GAD, ADD, ADHD, OCD, fibromyalgia 75-300mg
(600mg max)
5-7 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  
cyclohexanol:
SNRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition ++
DA reuptake inhibition +
Elavil amitriptyline depression, insomnia, anorexia, pain disorders, migraine 50-200mg
(300mg max)
20 hrs
(10-50 hrs)
CYP-2D6
CYP-2C19
CYP-1A2
P-gp
*  dibenzocycloheptadiene:
tertiary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT2 antagonist ++
ACh antagonist
H1 antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Eldepryl selegiline, l-deprenyl Parkinsons, depression, Alzheimer's Dementia 5-30mg
(60mg max)
2-10 hrs
CYP-2C19
CYP-2B6
*  propargylamine:
MAOI
MAO-B inhibition ++
MAO-A inhibition +
Emdalen lofepramine depression 70 - 210mg 4-6 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  TCA:
NE reuptake inhibition
Emend aprepitant depression, antiemetic N/A N/A *  triazoline:
NK-1 antagonist
Emitrip amitriptyline depression, insomnia, anorexia, pain disorders, migraine 50-200mg
(300mg max)
20 hrs
(10-50 hrs)
CYP-2D6
CYP-2C19
CYP-1A2
P-gp
*  dibenzocycloheptadiene:
tertiary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT2 antagonist ++
ACh antagonist
H1 antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Emsam selegiline, l-deprenyl depression 6mg/24hr patch
9mg/24hr patch
12mg/24hr patch
18-25 hrs
CYP-2C19
CYP-2B6
*  propargylamine:
MAOI
MAO-B inhibition ++
MAO-A inhibition +
Endep amitriptyline depression, insomnia, anorexia, pain disorders, migraine 50-200mg
(300mg max)
20 hrs
(10-50 hrs)
CYP-2D6
CYP-2C19
CYP-1A2
P-gp
*  dibenzocycloheptadiene:
tertiary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT2 antagonist ++
ACh antagonist
H1 antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Enovil amitriptyline depression, insomnia, anorexia, pain disorders, migraine 50-200mg
(300mg max)
20 hrs
(10-50 hrs)
CYP-2D6
CYP-2C19
CYP-1A2
P-gp
*  dibenzocycloheptadiene:
tertiary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT2 antagonist ++
ACh antagonist
H1 antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Epitol carbamazepine anticonvulsant, pain disorders, aggression 600-1200mg 12-17 hrs
CYP-3A4
CYP-2C19
*  tricyclic iminostilbene:
Na+ channel inhibition
adenylyl cyclase inhibition
Epival divalproex, valproate anticonvulsant, migraine, bipolar disorder (mood-stabilizer) 750-3000mg
(50-125mcg/ml)
9-16 hrs
CYP-2C9 (inhibitor)
CYP-2A6
glucoronidation
*  carboxylic acid:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+(T) channel inhibition
GABA increase:
1. GABA transaminase inhibition
2. SSAD dehydrogenase inhibition
Equanil meprobamate anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic 1200-1600mg
(2400 max)
6-17 hrs
glucuronide conjugation
*  carbamate:
CNS depressant
Eskalith lithium bipolar disorder, depression (augmentor), schizoaffective, neuroprotection, neurotrophic bipolar:
900-1500mg
(0.8-1.2 mEq/L)

unipolar:
300-600mg
(0.4-0.6 mEq/L)
14-30 hrs
renal excretion
*  alkali metal Li+ ion:
5-HT autoreceptor antagonist
GLU decreased
PI turnover decreased
PKC decreased
GSK-3b decreased
MAP kinase increase
Bcl-2 increase
BDNF increase
NFG increase
Estorra eszopiclone insomnia 2-3mg 6 hrs
CYP3A4
CYP2E1
*  
cyclopyrrolone:
BZD GABA receptor agonist
Etrafon amitriptyline + perphenazine comorbid depression with (agitation or anxiety) 200mg+16mg
max
N/A *  
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
+ DA antagonist
Ebixa memantine Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, depression, pain disorders, neuroprotective 20-40mg 60-80 hrs *  cyclic amine:
NMDA antagonist
Eunerpan melperone antipsychotic 100mg N/A *  butyrophenone:
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2 antagonist
Eutonyl pargyline depression, hypertension 90mg N/A *  propargylamine:
MAOI
MAO-B inhibition ++
MAO-A inhibition +
Evadyne butriptyline depression N/A N/A *  TCA:
NE reuptake inhibition
5- HT reuptake inhibition
Fanapt iloperidone antipsychotic 6-12mg 25 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A4.
*  piperidinyl-benzisoxazole:
DA(2,3) antagonist++
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT7 antagonist +
NE-alpha1 +
Felbatol felbamate epilepsy, biopolar disorder 600-2400mg
(3600mg max)
20-23 hrs
CYP-2E1
CYP-2C19 (inhibitor)
*  phenylpropanediol:
NMDA antagonist
Floxyfral fluvoxamine depression, OCD 100 - 300mg 15.6 hrs
CYP-2C9
CYP-3A4 (inhibitor)
*  valerophenone:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
Fluanxol flupenthixol antipsychotic 3-6mg
(12mg max)
14-17 days (injectable) *  thioxanthene neuroleptic:
DA1 antagonist +
DA2 antagonist ++
5-HT2a antagonist ++
Fluoxac fluoxetine depression, PMDD, OCD, bulimia 20-60mg
(120mg max)
4-6 days
(norfluoxetine 9-14 days)
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2C9
*  propylamine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2c antagonist
NE increase
Fluoxil fluoxetine depression, PMDD, OCD, bulimia 20-60mg
(120mg max)
4-6 days
(norfluoxetine 9-14 days)
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2C9
*  propylamine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2c antagonist
NE increase
Focalin dexmethylphenidate ADD, ADHD, depression, CFS 5-20mg 3.5 hrs *  psychostimulant:
DA reuptake inhibition
NE reuptake inhibition
NE release
Frisium clobazam epilepsy, anxiolytic 20-60mg 18-26 hrs *  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Gabitril tiagabine anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder 32-56mg 7-9 hrs
CYP-3A
*  piperidine:
GABA reuptake inhibition
Gamanil lofepramine depression 70 - 210mg 4-6 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  TCA:
NE reuptake inhibition
Geodon ziprasidone antipsychotic, depression 40-160mg
(200mg max)
7 hrs
aldeyde oxidase
*  
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist ++
DA3 antagonist ++
5-HT1a agonist ++
5-HT1d antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist +++
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
Halcion triazolam hypnotic 0.125-0.5mg 3 hrs
(1.5-5.5)
CYP-3A
*  triazolo benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Haldol haloperidol antipsychotic, Tourette's syndrome 2-20mg
(40mg max)
18-25 hrs
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
glucuronidation
*  butyrophenone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
DA3/4 antagonist ++
5-HT2a +
NE-alpha1 ++
Humoryl toloxatone depression 600mg 1-2 hrs *  oxazolidinone:
RIMA
Hydergine dihydroergocryptine (DHEC) + ergoloid mesylates nootropic, cerebrovascular insufficiency, dementia, neuroprotection, migraine 1-3mg 2.6-5.1 hrs *  ergot alkaloid:
DA agonist
NE- alpha antagonist
MAOI
Imovane zopiclone insomnia 3.75-7.5mg 5 hrs
CYP-2C8/9
CYP-3A
*  cyclopyrrolone:
GABA-A BZD(1) agonist
Inapsine droperidol antipsychotic, antiemetic injectable 2 hrs *  butyrophenone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist
Inderal propranolol hypertension, angina, arrhythmia, tremor, migraine, panic disorder, akathisia, pheochromocytoma 40-240mg
(640 max)
4 hrs
CYP-1A2
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
UGT-2B7
UGT-1A9
*  aryloxypropanolamine:
NE-beta antagonist
Insidon opipramol depression 150-300mg N/A *  dibenzoazepine:
TCA
sigma antagonist +++
5-HT2 antagonist
H1 antagonist
Invega paliperidone antipsychotic, schizophrenia 6mg
(3-9mg)
23 hours
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A4
*  benzisoxazole:
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2A antagonist
NE alpha-1 antagonist
NE alpha-2 antagonist
H1 antagonist
Inversine mecamylamine hypertension, Tourette's, ADD, ADHD, smoking cessation, bipolar disorder 5-25mg renal excretion *  amine
ACh(n) antagonist
Ionamin phentermine obesity, depression 20-30mg 20 hrs
(7-20 hrs)
*  phenethylamine:
NE release ++
DA release +
Iprozid iproniazid tuberculosis, depression 50-150mg 2-3 hrs *  hydrazine:
MAOI
Isoptin verapamil hypertension, angina, arrhythmia, bipolar disorder 240-480mg 5-12 hrs
CYP-2C19
CYP-3A (inhibitor)
CYP-2C8/9
*  valeronitrile:
CCB
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
Ixel milnacipran depression 50-200mg 8 hrs
glucuronidation
renal excretion
*  cyclopropane derivative:
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
Janimine imipramine depression, ADD, ADHD, IBS 75-300mg 19 hrs
(8-20 hrs)
*  dibenzazepine:
tertiary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
ACh(m) antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Jumex selegiline, l-deprenyl Parkinsons, depression, Alzheimer's 5-30mg
(60mg max)
2-10 hrs
CYP-2C19
CYP-2B6
*  propargylamine:
MAOI
MAO-B inhibition ++
MAO-A inhibition +
Kemadren procyclidine Parkinson's, AP-induced EPS 10-30mg 12 hrs *  
ACh(m) antagonist
Keppra levetiracetam anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder 1000-3000mg
(5000mg max)
6-8 hrs *  pyrrolidine:
Ca2+(N) channel inhibitor
Ketensin ketanserin hypertension, preeclampsia, Raynaud's 60-120mg
(160mg max)
15 hrs *  quinazolinedione:
NMDA antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
H1 antagonist
Kinupril quinupramine depression 2.5-15mg 9 hrs *  dibenzoazepine:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
ACh(m) antagonist
Klonopin clonazepam anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, bipolar disorder, agoraphobia, panic disorder, Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome anxiety: 0.5-4mg
AC: 1.5-10mg
(20mg max)
30-40 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  3-hydroxy benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
5-HT increase
Lamictal lamotrigine antconvulsant, bipolar disorder, depression 50-500mg 25 hrs
(48 hrs with valproate)
(12 hrs with carbamazepine)
UGT-1A4
*  phenyltriazine:
Na+ channel inhibition
GLU release inhibition
Ca2+(N) channel inhibition
Ca2+(P) channel inhibition
Largactil chlorpromazine antipsychotic, hiccups, nausea, porphyria 75-200mg
(900mg max)
30 hrs
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-1A2
UGT-1A4
*  phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist +
DA2 antagonist ++
5-HT2a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
H1 antagonist ++
Larodopa l-dopa
(levodopa)
Parkinsons, depression 2-8grams 1-2 hrs *  catecholamine:
DA increase
Latuda lurasidone antipsychotic, depression 40-80mg
(120mg max)
18 hrs
aldeyde oxidase
CYP-3A4
*  
benzoisothiazol
DA2 antagonist +++
5-HT1a agonist ++
5-HT1d antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist +++
5-HT7 antagonist +++
Lectopam bromazepam anxiolytic, muscle-relaxant, anticonvulsant, alcohol withdrawal, delerium tremens 4.5-9.0mg
(36mg max)
19 hrs
hydroxylation
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Levoprome levomepromazine
(methotrimeprazine)
antipsychotic, migraine, surgical sedation, pain disorders 50-200mg
(500mg max)
15-30 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist
DA2 antagonist
Levotonine oxitriptan depression 150-250mg 4 hrs *  5-hydroxytryptophan:
5-HT precursor
Levoxine thyroxine (T4) hypothyroidism, depression, bipolar disorder 100-400mcg 6-7 days
glucuronoconjugation
*  thyroid hormone:
NE receptor sensitivity increase
MAO inhibition
Lexapro escitalopram depression 10-30mg 27-32 hrs
CYP-2C19
*  bicyclic phthalane:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
Lexotan bromazepam anxiolytic, muscle-relaxant, anticonvulsant, alcohol withdrawal, delerium tremens 4.5-9.0mg
(36mg max)
19 hrs
hydroxylation
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Lexotanil bromazepam anxiolytic, muscle-relaxant, anticonvulsant, delerium tremens 4.5-9.0mg
(36mg max)
19 hrs
hydroxylation
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Libritabs chlordiazepoxide anxiolytic, alcohol withdrawal, IBS 10-40mg 24-48 hrs
CYP-3A
*  2-keto benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Librium chlordiazepoxide anxiolytic, alcohol withdrawal, IBS 10-40mg 24-48 hrs
CYP-3A
*  2-keto benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Limbitrol amitriptyline + chlordiazepoxide
(12.5+5mg)
(25+10mg)
comorbid depression and anxiety (25+10mg)
3-6 per day
N/A *  TCA + benzodiazepine:
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
+ BZD agonist
Lithobid lithium bipolar disorder, depression (augmentor), schizoaffective, neuroprotection, neurotrophic bipolar:
900-1500mg
(0.8-1.2 mEq/L)

unipolar:
300-600mg
(0.4-0.6 mEq/L)
14-30 hrs
renal excretion
*  alkali metal Li+ ion:
5-HT autoreceptor antagonist
GLU decreased
PI turnover decreased
PKC decreased
GSK-3b decreased
MAP kinase increase
Bcl-2 increase
BDNF increase
NFG increase
Lotrel almodipine hypertension, angina, bipolar disorder 5-10mg 30-50 hrs *  dihydropyridine:
CCB
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
Lovan fluoxetine depression, PMDD, OCD, bulimia 20-60mg
(120mg max)
4-6 days
(norfluoxetine 9-14 days)
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2C9
*  propylamine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2c antagonist
NE increase
Loxapac loxapine antipsychotic 60-100mg
(250mg max)
3 hrs
20-30 hrs (active metabolite)
UGT-1A4
glucuronidation
*  dibenzoxazepine:
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
Loxitane loxapine antipsychotic 60-100mg
(250mg max)
3 hrs
20-30 hrs (active metabolite)
UGT-1A4
glucuronidation
*  dibenzoxazepine:
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
Ludiomil maprotiline depression 75-150mg 27-58 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  tetracyclic:
NE reuptake inhibition ++
ACh(m) antagonist
Lunesta eszopiclone insomnia 2-3mg 6 hrs
CYP3A4
CYP2E1
*  
cyclopyrrolone:
BZD GABA receptor agonist
Lustral sertraline depression, PTSD, OCD, panic disorder 50-200mg 26 hrs
CYP-2C19 (inhibitor)
CYP-2D6
CYP-2B6
*  naphtalamine:
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
DA reuptake inhibition +
Luvox fluvoxamine depression, OCD 100 - 300mg 15.6 hrs
CYP-2C9
CYP-3A4 (inhibitor)
*  valerophenone:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
Lyrica pregabalin anticonvulsant, anxiety disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, pain disorders 150-600mg 6 hrs *  isobutylgaba:
GABA increase
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
Manerix moclobemide depression, social phobia 150 - 600mg
(1200 max)
1-2 hrs
CYP-2C19
*  benzamide:
RIMA
Margesic propoxyphene analgesic 65-390mg 6-12 hrs
(norpropoxyphene 30-36 hrs)
CYP-3A (inhibitor)
CYP-2C8/9
*  diphenylbutanol:
opioid
opioid agonist
Marplan isocarboxazid depression 30-80mg N/A *  hydrazine:
MAOI
Mazanor mazindol obesity, EDS, depression 1-3mg 12 hrs *  imidazoline:
DA reuptake inhibition
NE reuptake inhibition
Mellaril thioridazine antipsychotic 30-200mg
(800mg max)
7-9 hrs
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
*  phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist
DA2 antagonist
Meridia sibutramine obesity, depression 5-15mg 1-2 hrs
CYP-3A
metabolites: 15 hrs
*  dimethylamine+
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
NE reuptake inhibition ++
DA reuptake inhibition +
Merital nomifensine depression 100-200mg 2 hrs *  tetrahydroisoquinoline:
DA reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition ++
Metadate methylphenidate ADD, ADHD, depression, CFS 20-30mg
(60mg max)
6.8 hrs *  psychostimulant:
DA reuptake inhibition
NE reuptake inhibition
NE release
Mexitil mexiletine antiarrhythmic, anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder, pain disorders, 300-1200mg 10 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-1A2 (inhibitor)
*  
Na+ channel inhibitor
Milltown meprobamate anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic 1200-1600mg
(2400 max)
6-17 hrs
glucuronide conjugation
*  carbamate:
CNS depressant
Mifeprex mifepristone
(RU-486)
terminate pregnancy, bipolar disorder, psychotic depression 600-1200mg 18 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  proponyl-estra-diene
cortisol receptor antagonist
progesterone receptor antagonist
Minipress prazosin antihypertensive, MAOI-tyramine hypertensive crisis 6-20mg
(40mg max)
2-3 hrs
demethylation
conjugation
*  quinazoline:
NE alpha1 antagonist
Mirapex pramipexole Parkinsons, depression, RLS, hyperprolactinemia 1.5-4.5mg 8-12 hrs
renal excretion
*  benzthiazole:
DA2 agonist ++
(pre > post)
DA3 agonist +++
Moban molindone antipsychotic 20-225mg 1.5 hrs *  dihydroindolone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist ++
ACh(m) antagonist ++
Modecate fluphenazine antipsychotic 2.5-20.0mg
(40mg max)
20 hrs
CYP-2D6
P-gp
*  piperazine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist ++
DA2 antagonist +++
5-HT2a antagonist +
Mogadon nitrazepam insomnia 2.5 - 10mg 23 hrs
(18-28 hrs)
CYP-3A
CYP-2D6
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Monase etryptamine depression N/A N/A *  ndolalkylamine:
MAOI
Mysoline primidone anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder 250-1000mg 10 hrs
CYP-2C19
*  pyrimidinedione:
barbiturate
CNS depressant
Namenda memantine Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, depression, pain disorders, neuroprotective 20-40mg 60-80 hrs *  cyclic amine:
NMDA antagonist
Nardil phenelzine depression, social anxiety, GAD, panic disorder, OCD 30-60mg
(60 mg max)
12 hrs *  hydrazine:
MAOI
GABA transaminase inhibition
Navane thiothixene antipsychotic 15-30mg
(60 max)
34 hrs
CYP-1A2
*  thioxanthene:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist
DA2 antagonist
Nefadar nefazodone depression 300-600mg 2-4 hrs
CYP-3A
(mCPP 4-8 hrs CYP-2D6)
*  phenylpiperazine:
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT1a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
* mCPP metabolite:
5-HT2b agonist ++
5-HT2c agonist ++
Neuralex benmoxine depression, anger 50-75mg N/A *  hydrazine:
MAOI
Neurontin gabapentin anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, pain disorders, migraine 600-2400mg
(5400mg max)
5-7 hrs
renal excretion
*  cyclohexonacetic acid:
GABA increase
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
Niamid nialamide depression 150-200mg N/A *  hydrazine:
MAOI
Nimotop nimodipine cerebral ischemia, subarachnoid hemorrhage, bipolar disorder 180-360mg 8-9 hrs
CYP-3A
*  dihydropyridine:
CCB
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
Nobrium medazepam anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle-relaxant 10-30mg 2-5 hrs
1-15 hrs (biphasic)
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Noctamid lormetazepam insomnia 1-2mg 10 hrs *  benzodiazepine
BZD agonist
Nogedal noxiptiline depression 25-200mg N/A *  dibenzocycloheptene:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
NE-alpha1 antagonist
H1 antagonist
Nootropil piracetam nootropic, Alzheimer's, cerebral ischemia, myoclonus 1500-2500mg 6-8 hrs *  pyrrolidine:
membrane fluidity increase
Norpramin desipramine depression, ADD, ADHD, bulimia, IBS, pain disorders 50-200mg
(300mg max)
20-25 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzazepine:
secondary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition +++
ACh(m) antagonist +
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Nortec chloral hydrate insomnia 500 - 1000mg 8-10 hrs *  CNS depressant:
GABA-A increase
Norvasc almodipine hypertension, angina, bipolar disorder 5-10mg 30-50 hrs *  dihydropyridine:
CCB
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
Noveril dibenzepine depression 240-480mg N/A *  dibenzepine:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
Nozinan methotrimeprazine antipsychotic, antiemetic, anxiolytic, sedative, analgesic anxiolytic: 10-25mg

AP: 50-200mg
(500 max)
15-30 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
NE-alpha antagonist
H1 antagonist
Olmifon adrafinil nootropic, vigilance, depression, dysthymia 600-1200mg 1 hr
glycuroconjugation
*  diphenyl methylsulfinyl:
GLU release
OmegaBrite omega-3 fatty acids bipolar disorder 2-10g N/A *  phospholipid:
EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid)
DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)
enhances membrane integrity
PKC inhibition
G-Protein transduction decrease
Orap pimozide antipsychotic, Tourette's 2-12mg
(20mg max)
110 hrs
CYP-3A
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor only)
*  diphenylbutylpiperidine:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
DA3 antagonist ++
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT7 antagonist
Ca2+(T) channel inhibitor
Oxycontin oxycodone analgesic, depression 60-180mg
(10-30mg every 4 hours)
3-5 hrs
CYP-2D6
UGT-2B7
*  morphinane:
opioid
opioid(mu) agonist
Pamelor nortriptyline depression, pain disorders 50-100mg
(150mg max)
blood level:
50-150 ng/mL
20 hrs (18-90 hrs)
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzocycloheptadiene:
secondary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition +++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
ACh antagonist
H1 antagonist
NE-alpha antagonist
Pardidol ethopropazine Parkinsons, AP-induced EPS 100-600mg N/A *  phenothiazine:
ACh(m) antagonist
Parlodel bromocriptine Parkinsons, depression, RLS, hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly 2.5-40mg 2-8 hrs *  ergot alkaloid:
DA2 agonist
Parnate tranylcypromine depression 20-60mg
(120mg max)
2 hrs
CYP-2C19 (inhibitor only)
*  cyclopropylamine:
MAOI
Paxipam halazepam anxiolytic 60-160mg oxidation *  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Paxil paroxetine depression, OCD, GAD, social anxiety, PTSD, panic disorder 20-60mg 15-21 hrs
CYP-2D6
(inhibitor)
*  phenylpiperidine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
ACh(m) antagonist
Percolone oxycodone analgesic, depression 60-180mg
(10-30mg every 4 hours)
3-5 hrs
CYP-2D6
UGT-2B7
*  morphinane:
opioid
opioid(mu) agonist
Periactin cyproheptadine allergy, pruritis, urticaria, AD sexual side-effects, appetite stimulant, migraine 4-20mg
(32mg max)
1-4 hrs
renal excretion
*  dibenzocycloheptene:
5-HT2a antagonist +++
5-HT2c antagonist ++
H1 antagonist +++
H4 antagonist ++
ACh(m) antagonist
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
Permax pergolide Parkinsons, depression, RLS, hyperprolactinemia 0.25-5mg CYP-2D6
(inhibitor only)
*  ergot alkaloid:
DA1 agonist
DA2 agonist
5-HT2b agonist
Permitil fluphenazine antipsychotic 2.5-20.0mg
(40mg max)
20 hrs
CYP-2D6
P-gp
*  piperazine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist ++
DA2 antagonist +++
5-HT2a antagonist +
Pertofrane desipramine depression, ADD, ADHD, bulimia, IBS, pain disorders 50-200mg
(300mg max)
20-25 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzazepine:
secondary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition +++
ACh(m) antagonist +
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Physeptone methadone opioid dependence, analgesic 15-40mg 28-35 hrs
CYP-2D6
(inhibitor)
CYP-3A
UGT-UB7
*  diphenylheptane:
opioid:
opioid(mu) agonist
Piportil pipotiazine antipsychotic 5-20mg 11-12 hrs *  piperidine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
DA3 antagonist +++
Pragmarel trazodone depression, insomnia AD: 100-600mg
hypnotic: 25-150mg
5-9 hrs
CYP-3A
mCPP: CYP-2D6
*  phenylpiperazine:
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT1a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
* mCPP metabolite:
5-HT2b agonist ++
5-HT2c agonist ++
Prazinil carpipramine antipsychotic, drug detoxification 50-400mg N/A *  dibenzoazepine:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist
Pretonine oxitriptan depression 150-250mg 4 hrs *  5-hydroxytryptophan:
5-HT precursor
Procardia nifedipine antihypertensitive, MAOI-tyramine hypertensive crisis, angina, migraine, bipolar disorder 30-120mg
(180 max)
2 hrs
CYP-3A (inhibitor)
*  dihydropyridine:
CCB
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
Prodep fluoxetine depression, PMDD, OCD, bulimia 20-60mg
(120mg max)
4-6 days
(norfluoxetine 9-14 days)
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2C9
*  propylamine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2c antagonist
NE increase
Prolixin fluphenazine antipsychotic 2.5-20.0mg
(40mg max)
20 hrs
CYP-2D6
P-gp
*  piperazine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist ++
DA2 antagonist +++
5-HT2a antagonist +
Prosom estazolam insomnia 1-2mg 10-24 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  triazolo benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Prothiaden dothiepin depression 50-225mg 22 hrs
(11-30 hrs)
CYP-1A2
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzothiepine:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
ACh(m) antagonist
Provigil modafinil narcolepsy, EDS, depression 200-400mg 15 hrs
hydrolysis
*  diphenyl methylsulfinyl:
GLU release
Prozac fluoxetine depression, PMDD, OCD, bulimia 20-60mg
(120mg max)
4-6 days
(norfluoxetine 9-14 days)
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2C9
*  propylamine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2c antagonist
NE increase
Reductil sibutramine obesity, depression 5-15mg 1-2 hrs
CYP-3A
metabolites: 15 hrs
*  dimethylamine+
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
NE reuptake inhibition ++
DA reuptake inhibition +
Regitine phentolamine antihypertensive, MAOI-tyramine hypertensive crisis, Raynaud Syndrome 5mg injectable 19 min *  imidazoline:
NE alpha antagonist
Remeron mirtazapine depression 15 - 45mg
(75mg max)
20-40 hrs
CYP-1A2
CYP-3A
*  piperazinoazepine:
NE-alpha2 antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT2c antagonist
5-HT3 antagonist
H1 antagonist
Reminyl galantamine Alzheimer's, 8-16mg
(24mg max)
7 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A4
glucuronidation
*  tertiary alkaloid:
cholinergic
ACh acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
ACh(n) agonist
Requip ropinirole Parkinsons, depression, RLS 0.75-3.0mg 6 hrs
CYP-1A2
CYP-3A
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor only)
*  dipropylamine:
DA3 agonist ++
DA2 agonist +
Restoril temazepam insomnia 10 - 20mg 8 hrs
CYP-2B6
CYP-3A
UGT-2B7
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Revex nalmefene opioid overdose, opioid dependence, alcohol dependence, OCD, SI 20-80mg 7-10 hrs
UGT-UB7
*  morphinane:
opioid(mu) antagonist +++
opioid(kappa) antagonist +++
opioid(delta) antagonist ++
Revia naltrexone opioid overdose, opioid dependence, alcohol dependence, OCD, SI, depression 50-100mg 4 hrs
(6-(beta)-naltrexol 13 hrs)
UGT-UB7
*  oxymorphone:
opioid antagonist
Rhotrimine trimipramine depression 50-200mg
(300mg max)
24 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A
CYP-2C19
*  dibenzazepine:
tertiary TCA
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Ca2+ channel inhibition
ACh(m) antagonist
H1 antagonist
Rhovane zopiclone insomnia 3.75-7.5mg 5 hrs
CYP-2C8/9
CYP-3A
*  cyclopyrrolone:
GABA-A BZD(1) agonist
Rilutek riluzole ALS, depression, bipolar disorder 100mg 12 hrs
CYP-1A2
*  benzothiazole:
glutamate release inhibitor
Na+ channel inhibition
Risperdal risperidone antipsychotic, depression AP: 4-16mg

AD: 0.5mg-2mg
RM: 3 hrs
SM: 20 hrs
CYP-3A
P-gp
*  benzisoxazole:
neuroleptic:
DA2 antagonist ++
5-HT2a antagonist +++
NE-alpha(1,2) antagonist ++
H1 antagonist +
Ritalin methylphenidate ADD, ADHD, depression, CFS 20-30mg
(60mg max)
2.9 hrs *  psychostimulant:
DA reuptake inhibition
NE reuptake inhibition
NE release
Rivotril clonazepam anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, bipolar disorder, agoraphobia, panic disorder, Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome anxiety: 0.5-4mg
AC: 1.5-10mg
(20mg max)
30-40 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  3-hydroxy benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
5-HT increase
Rohypnol flunitrazepam anxiolytic, hypnotic 1.0-3.0mg 22 hrs
(16-35 hrs)
CYP-3A
UGT-UB7
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Roxicodone oxycodone analgesic, depression 60-180mg
(10-30mg every 4 hours)
3-5 hrs
CYP-2D6
UGT-2B7
*  morphinane:
opioid
opioid(mu) agonist
Roxiam remoxipride antipsychotic 50-150mg 4-6 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  substituted benzamide:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +
sigma antagonist +++
Rozerem ramelteon insomnia 16-64mg N/A *  tricyclic indan analogue:
melatonin M1 receptor agonist +++
melatonin M2 receptor agonist +++
Sabril vigabatrin anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder 2000-4000mg 5-8 hrs *  gamma-vinyl-GABA:
GABA increase
GABA transaminase inhibition
Sanorex mazindol obesity, EDS, depression 1-3mg 12 hrs *  imidazoline:
DA reuptake inhibition
NE reuptake inhibition
Saphris asenapine antipsychotic, bipolar mania 10-20mg 24 hrs
CYP-1A2
glucuronidation
*  dibenzo-oxepino pyrrole:
DA(1,2,3,4) antagonist ++
5-HT2(a,b,c) antagonist +++
5-HT1(a,b) partial agonist ++
5-HT7 antagonist ++
NE alpha2 antagonist
Sarafem fluoxetine depression, PMDD, OCD, bulimia 20-60mg
(120mg max)
4-6 days
(norfluoxetine 9-14 days)
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2C9
*  propylamine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2c antagonist
NE increase
Serax oxazepam anxiolytic, alchohol withdrawal 20-60mg
(120mg max)
8 hrs
(5.7-10.9 hrs)
UGT-UB7 (inhibitor)
*  3-hydroxy benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Serentil mesoridazine antipsychotic, alcoholism, chronic brain syndrome: 100-400mg 24-48 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  piperidine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
Serenase haloperidol antipsychotic, Tourette's syndrome 2-20mg
(40mg max)
18-25 hrs
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
glucuronidation
*  butyrophenone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
DA3/4 ++
5-HT2a +
NE-alpha1 ++
Serepress ketanserin hypertension, preeclampsia, Raynaud's 60-120mg
(160mg max)
15 hrs *  quinazolinedione:
NMDA antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
H1 antagonist
Serdolect sertindole antipsychotic 20-24mg 60-73 hrs *  imidazolidinone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2a/c antagonist +++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
Seroquel quetiapine antipsychotic 300-500mg
(800mg max)
6 hrs
CYP-3A
glucuronidation
*  dibenzothiazepine:
neuroleptic:
DA2 antagonist +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
H1 antagonist +
sigma antagonist
Seroxat paroxetine depression, OCD, GAD, social anxiety, PTSD, panic disorder 20-60mg 15-21 hrs
CYP-2D6
(inhibitor)
*  phenylpiperidine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
ACh(m) antagonist
Serzone nefazodone depression 300-600mg 2-4 hrs
CYP-3A
(mCPP 4-8 hrs CYP-2D6)
*  phenylpiperazine:
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT1a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
* mCPP metabolite:
5-HT2b agonist ++
5-HT2c agonist ++
Sigaperidol haloperidol antipsychotic, Tourette's syndrome 2-20mg
(40mg max)
18-25 hrs
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
glucuronidation
*  butyrophenone:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
DA3/4 ++
5-HT2a +
NE-alpha1 ++
Sinemet carbidopa/l-dopa Parkinsons, depression 8 x (25/250mg) max 1-2 hrs *  catecholamine:
DA increase
Sinequan doxepin depression, anxiety, 75-150mg
(300mg max)
8-24 hrs
CYP-2D6
*  dibenzoxepin:
tertiary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
ACh(m) antagonist
H1 antagonist +++
H2 antagonist +++
NE- alpha1 antagonist
Sintamil nitroxazepine depression, nocturnal enuresis 75-225mg N/A *  TCA
Solian amisulpride antipsychotic, depression, dysthymia AP: 400-800mg
(1200mg max)

AD: 50-200mg
12 hrs
renal excretion
*  benzamide:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
(pre > post)
DA3 antagonist +++
Sonata zaleplon insomnia 5-20mg 1.5 hrs
CYP-3A
aldehyde oxidase
*  pyrazolopyrimidine:
GABA-A BZD(1) agonist
Sparine promazine antipsychotic, antiemetic, hiccups, alcoholic hallucinations 50-1200mg N/A *  phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist +
DA2 antagonist +
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
H1 antagonist ++
Stelazine trifluoperazine antipsychotic, anxiolytic 4-20mg
(40 max)
10-14 hrs
UGT-1A4
*  piperazine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist
DA2 antagonist
DA2 antagonist
Stablon tianeptine depression 25-50mg 2-3 hrs
b-oxidation
n-desmethylation
*  dibenzothiazepine:
5-HT reuptake accelerator
Compazine, Stemetil prochlorperazine antipsychotic, antiemetic 10-20mg
(40mg max)
antipsychotic, antiemetic, Ménière's Disease, labyrinthitis, vertigo *  piperazine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +++
DA3 antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
Stilnox zolpidem insomnia 5 - 10mg 2.6 hrs
CYP-1A2
CYP-3A
CYP-2C8/9
*  imidazopyridine:
GABA-A BZD(1) agonist
Strattera atomoxetine, tomoxetine ADD, ADHD, depression 50-150mg
(1.2-1.8mg/kg)
5 hrs
(5-24 hrs)
CYP-2D6
*  tolyloxypropylamine:
NE reuptake inhibition +++
Suboxone buprenorphine + naloxone analgesic, depression, opioid dependence 1.2-3.2mg 2.2 hrs
(1.2-7.2 hrs)
*  morphinane:
opioid
opioid(mu) partial agonist
opioid(kappa) antagonist
Subutex buprenorphine analgesic, depression, opioid dependence 1.2-3.2mg 2.2 hrs
(1.2-7.2 hrs)
*  morphinane:
opioid
opioid(mu) partial agonist
opioid(kappa) antagonist
Sufrexal ketanserin hypertension, preeclampsia, Raynaud's 60-120mg
(160mg max)
15 hrs *  quinazolinedione:
NMDA antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
H1 antagonist
Sulparex sulpiride antipsychotic, depression, dysthymia AP: 400-2400mg

AD: 50-200mg
8 hrs
renal excretion
*  benzamide:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +
(pre > post)
DA3/4 antagonist ++
Surmontil trimipramine depression 50-200mg
(300mg max)
24 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A
CYP-2C19
*  dibenzazepine:
tertiary TCA
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Ca2+ channel inhibition
ACh(m) antagonist
H1 antagonist
Sursum iproclozide depression, hypertension 10-30mg N/A *  hydrazine:
MAOI
Survector amineptine depression 100-200mg 5-8 hrs *  dibenzocycloheptene:
DA reuptake inhibition
Symmetrel amantadine Parkinsons, antiviral, depression, AP-induced EPS 100-300mg 10-22 hrs
renal excretion
*  cyclic amine:
NMDA antagonist
DA increase
DA release
Synthroid thyroxine (T4) hypothyroidism, depression, bipolar disorder 100-400mcg 6-7 days
glucuronoconjugation
*  thyroid hormone:
NE receptor sensitivity increase
MAO inhibition
Taractan chlorprothixene antipsychotic 300-600 N/A *  thioxanthene
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist
DA2 antagonist
5-HT2 antagonist
Tasmar tolcapone Parkinsons, depression 200-600mg 3 hrs
glucuronidation
*  nitrobenzophenone:
COMT inhibition
Tegretol carbamazepine anticonvulsant, pain disorders, aggression 600-1200mg 12-17 hrs
CYP-3A4
CYP-2C19
*  tricyclic iminostilbene:
Na+ channel inhibition
adenylyl cyclase inhibition
Temgesic buprenorphine analgesic, depression, opioid dependence 1.2-3.2mg 2.2 hrs
(1.2-7.2 hrs)
*  morphinane:
opioid
opioid(mu) partial agonist
opioid(kappa) antagonist
Temposil calcium carbimide alcoholism 100-200mg 1.5 hrs *  carbimide:
acetaldehyde- deshydrogenase inhibition
Tenormin atenolol hypertension, angina, tremor, anxiety, akathisia, migraine 50-200mg 6-7 hrs
renal excretion
*  acetamide
BB
NE-beta1 antagonist ++
NE-beta2 antagonist +
Teronac mazindol obesity, EDS, depression 1-3mg 12 hrs *  imidazoline:
DA reuptake inhibition
NE reuptake inhibition
Thorazine chlorpromazine antipsychotic, hiccups, nausea, porphyria 75-200mg
(900mg max)
30 hrs
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-1A2
UGT-1A4
*  phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA1 antagonist +
DA2 antagonist ++
5-HT2a antagonist ++
NE-alpha1 antagonist ++
H1 antagonist ++
Timaxil metapramine depression 150-450mg 7 hrs
desmethylation
*  dibenzoazepine:
NE synthesis
NE release
NMDA antagonist
Timodyne mefexamide depression, asthenia 300-600mg 4-6 hrs psychostimulant
Tindal acetophenazine antipsychotic 20-60mg 20-40 hrs *  piperazine phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
Tinoran demexiptiline depression 50-75mg 35 hrs
desmethylation
*  dibenzocycloheptene:
NE reuptake inhibition +++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
ACh antagonist
Tofranil imipramine depression, ADD, ADHD, IBS 75-300mg 19 hrs
(8-20 hrs)
*  dibenzazepine:
tertiary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
ACh(m) antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Topamax topiramate anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder 200-400mg
(1600 max)
21 hrs
glucuronidation
CYP-2C19
*  monosaccharide:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+(L) channel inhibition
GABA-A receptor enhancement
GLU antagonist
Tranxene clorazepate anxiolytic, partial seizures, alcohol withdrawal 15-60mg 30-40 hrs
(norclorazepate)
*  2-keto benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Tranxilene clorazepate anxiolytic, partial seizures, alcohol withdrawal 15-60mg 30-40 hrs
(norclorazepate)
*  2-keto benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Triavil amitriptyline + perphenazine comorbid depression with (agitation or anxiety) 200mg+16mg
max
N/A *  TCA + neuroleptic:
NE reuptake inhibition ++
5-HT reuptake inhibition ++
+ DA antagonist
Trilafon perphenazine antipsychotic, antiemetic 4-16mg
(64mg max)
8-12 hrs *  piperazinyl phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
Trileptal oxcarbazepine anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder, pain disorder 1200-2400mg 2 hrs
9 hrs MHD (active)
*  tricyclic iminostilbene:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+ channel inhibition
Triptil protriptyline depression 15-60mg 55-198 hrs *  dibenzocycloheptene:
secondary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition +++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
ACh(m) antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Tisterton ritanserin sleep architecture (increase slow-wave; decrease REM), depression (AD augmentation), dysthymia, schizophrenia (AP augmentation), AP-induced EPS 5-10mg
(30mg max)
39 hrs
(20-60 hrs)
*  thiazolopyrimidine:
5-HT2a antagonist +++
5-HT2b antagonist +++
5-HT2c antagonist +++
Trivastal piribedil cerebral ischemia, Parkinsons, depression 50-100mg 2-7 hrs *  piperazine:

DA agonist
Tropium chlordiazepoxide anxiolytic, alcohol withdrawal, IBS 10-40mg 24-48 hrs
CYP-3A
*  2-keto benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Ultram tramadol analgesic 100-400mg 6-8 hrs
CYP-2D6
CYP-3A
glucuronidation
*  opioid:
opioid(mu) agonist
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
Uprima apomorphine Parkinsons, sexual dysfunction (erectile), alcohol withdrawal 2-3mg 1-2 hrs
glucuronide conjugation
*  dibenzoquinoleine:
DA agonist
Upstene indalpine depression, anxiety 100-150mg 10 hrs *  indole:
5-HT reuptake inhibition
Urecholine bethanechol AD-induced urinary retention 10-50mg dose / 3-4x per day N/A *  esther:
cholinergic
ACh(m) agonist
Vagran propizepine depression, parasympatholytic 50-200mg 8 hrs *  benzopyridodiazepine:
TCA
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
ACh(m) antagonist
Valdoxan agomelatine depression, anxiety, insomnia 25mg 2 hours
N/A
*  methoxynaphthyl ethylacetamide:
5- HT2b antagonist ++
5-HT2c antagonist +++
melatonin M1 receptor agonist +++
melatonin M2 receptor agonist +++
Valirem sulpiride antipsychotic, depression, dysthymia AP: 400-2400mg

AD: 50-200mg
8 hrs
renal excretion
*  benzamide:
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist +
(pre > post)
DA3/4 antagonist ++
Valium diazepam anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, seizures, status epilepticus, athetosus, tetanus, alcohol withdrawal, surgical sedation 10-40mg 20 hrs
CYP-2C19
CYP-3A4
*  2-keto benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Valrelease valproate anticonvulsant, migraine, bipolar disorder (mood-stabilizer) 750-3000mg
(50-125mcg/ml)
9-16 hrs
CYP-2C9 (inhibitor)
CYP-2A6
glucoronidation
*  carboxylic acid:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+(T) channel inhibition
GABA increase:
1. GABA transaminase inhibition
2. SSAD dehydrogenase inhibition
Versed midazolam preoperative sedation 5mg injectable 2.9-4.5 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
Vesprin trifluopromazine antipsychotic, antiemetic 25-200mg N/A *  phenothiazine:
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
Vestra reboxetine depression 4-12mg 12 hrs
CYP-3A
*  benzyl morpholine
NE reuptake inhibition +++
Viibryd vilazodone depression 40mg 25 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  phenylpiperazine:
5-HT reuptake inhibitor
5-HT1a partial agonist
Visken pindolol hypertension, angina, depression 10-60mg 8 hrs
(7-15 hrs)
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
*  aryloxypropanolamine:
BB
NE- beta antagonist
5-HT1a antagonist
Vistaril hydroxyzine allergy, sedative 50-100mg 20 hrs *  piperazine:
antihistamine
H1 antagonist
ACh(m) antagonist
Vivactil protriptyline depression 15-60mg 55-198 hrs *  dibenzocycloheptene:
secondary TCA
NE reuptake inhibition +++
5-HT reuptake inhibition +
ACh(m) antagonist
NE-alpha1 antagonist
Vivalan viloxazine depression, narcolepsy, cataplexy 15-30mg 2-5 hrs *  morpholine:
NE reuptake inhibitor +++
Vivarin caffeine stimulant, analeptic 50-200mg 3-4 hrs
CYP-1A2
*  methylxanthine:
adenosine antagonist
cAMP PDE inhibition
Wellbutrin bupropion, amfebutamone depression, smoking cessation, ADD, ADHD, AD sexual side-effects 75-300mg
(450mg max)
21 hrs
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2B6
*  monocyclic aminoketone:
DA reuptake inhibition +
NE increase
ACh(n) antagonist
Xanax alprazolam anxiety, GAD, panic disorder 1.5-4.0mg
(10mg max)
11.2 hrs
(6-26 hrs)
CYP-3A
*  triazolo benzodiazepine:
BZD agonist
5-HT release
Xyrem, Somsanit GHB
(oxybate)
narcoleptic cataplexy, anesthesia, insomnia, stroke 6-9grams 0.5-1.0 hrs
tricarboxylic acid
(Krebs cycle)
*  gamma hydroxybutyrate
GABA-B agonist
GABA increase
Zactin fluoxetine depression, PMDD, OCD, bulimia 20-60mg
(120mg max)
4-6 days
(norfluoxetine 9-14 days)
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2C9
*  propylamine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
NE reuptake inhibition +
5-HT2c antagonist
NE increase
Zarontin ethosuximide anticonvulsant 1000-1500mg 30-50 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  succinimide:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca+2 channel inhibition
Zeldox ziprasidone antipsychotic, depression 40-160mg
(200mg max)
7 hrs
aldeyde oxidase
*  
neuroleptic
DA2 antagonist ++
DA3 antagonist ++
5-HT1a agonist ++
5-HT1d antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist +++
NE reuptake inhibition
5-HT reuptake inhibition
Zelmid zimeldine depression, migraine, obesity 75-300mg 8 hrs *  dimethylallylamine:
SSRI
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
Zimovane zopiclone insomnia 3.75-7.5mg 5 hrs
CYP-2C8/9
CYP-3A
*  cyclopyrrolone:
GABA-A BZD(1) agonist
Zipsin mirtazapine depression 15 - 45mg
(75mg max)
20-40 hrs
CYP-1A2
CYP-3A
*  piperazinoazepine:
NE-alpha2 antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT2c antagonist
5-HT3 antagonist
H1 antagonist
Zofran ondansetron antiemetic 8-16mg22 2.9-4.5 hrs
CYP-3A4
*  imidazole:
5-HT3 antagonist
Zoleptil zotepine antipsychotic 100-300mg N/A *  
neuroleptic
DA antagonist
5-HT2a antagonist
Zoloft sertraline depression, PTSD, OCD, panic disorder 50-200mg 26 hrs
CYP-2C19 (inhibitor)
CYP-2D6
CYP-2B6
*  naphtalamine:
5-HT reuptake inhibition +++
DA reuptake inhibition +
Zonegran zonisamide anticonvulsant, bipolar disorder 100-600mg 50-70 hrs
CYP-3A
glucuronidation
*  sulfonamide:
Na+ channel inhibition
Ca2+(T) channel inhibition
DA increase
Zyban bupropion, amfebutamone depression, smoking cessation, ADD, ADHD, AD sexual side-effects 75-300mg
(450mg max)
21 hrs
CYP-2D6 (inhibitor)
CYP-2B6
*  monocyclic aminoketone:
DA reuptake inhibition +
NE increase
ACh(n) antagonist
Zyprexa olanzapine antipsychotic, mania, mood stabilizer, depression, reduce TD 5-15mg
(20mg max)
30 hrs
(21-54 hrs)
CYP-1A2
UGT-1A4
glucuronidation
*  thienobenzodiazepine:
neuroleptic:
DA2 antagonist +
DA1 antagonist +
5-HT2a antagonist ++
5-HT2c antagonist +
NE-alpha1 antagonist +
ACh(m) antagonist ++
H1 antagonist ++







Abbreviations:

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5-HT .................... serotonin
5-HT1 ................... 5-HT1 receptor
5-HTP ................... 5-hydroxytryptophan
AC ...................... anticonvulsant
ACh ..................... acetylcholine
ACh(m) .................. acetylcholine muscarinic receptor
ACh(n) .................. acetylcholine nicotinic receptor
AD ...................... antidepressant
ADHD .................... attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
ADD ..................... attention deficit disorder
AIDS .................... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AP ...................... antipsychotic
ATP ..................... adenosine triphosphate
BB ...................... beta-blocker
Bcl-2 ..................  B-cell lymphoma protein-2
BDNF .................... brain derived neurotrophic factor
BZD ..................... benzodiazepine receptor
CA2+ .................... calcium
Ca2+(L) ................. calcium channel L-type
Ca2+(T) ................. calcium channel T-type
cAMP .................... cyclic adenosine monophosphate
CCB ..................... calcium channel blocker
COMT .................... catechol-O-methyltransferase
CYP ..................... cytochrome P450
DA ...................... dopamine
DA2 ..................... dopamine D2 receptorHydrolysis
DSS ..................... dopamine system stabilizer
EDS ..................... excessive daytime sleepiness
EPS ..................... extrapyramidal side-effects
GABA .................... gamma amino butyric acid
GABA-A .................. GABA-A receptor
GABA-B .................. GABA-B receptor
GAD ..................... generalized anxiety disorder
GLU ..................... glutamate
GSK ..................... glycogen synthase kinase
H1 ...................... histamine-1 receptor
H2 ...................... histamine-2 receptor
IBS ..................... irritable bowel syndrome
K+ ...................... potassium
M1 ...................... melatonin receptor type 1
M2 ...................... melatonin receptor type 2
MAO ..................... monoamine oxidase enzyme
MAO-A ................... monomamine oxidase type-A (catabolizes NE and 5-
HT)
MAO-B ................... monomamine oxidase type-B (catabolizes DA)
MAOI .................... monoamine oxidase inhibitor (irreversible) -
compare with RIMA
MAP ..................... mitogen-activated protein (kinase)
NE ...................... norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
NE-alpha1 ............... norepinephrine alpha-1 receptor
NGF ..................... nerve growth factor
NK ...................... neurokinin
NMDA .................... N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor
Na+ ..................... sodium
OCD ..................... obsessive comulsive disorder
PD ...................... panic disorder
PDE ..................... phosphodiesterase
PI ...................... phosphoinositide
PKC ..................... protein kinase-C
PMDD .................... premenstrual dysphoric disorder
PTSD .................... post-traumatic stress disorder
RIMA .................... reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type-A
(MAO-A)
RLS ..................... restless leg syndrome
RM ...................... rapid metabolizers
SI ...................... self-injury
SM ...................... slow metabolizers
SSAD .................... succinate semi-aldehyde dehydrogenase
TCA ..................... tricyclic antidepressant
TD ...................... tardive dyskinesia
TNF ..................... tumor necrosis factor
UGT ..................... UDP-glucuronosyltransferase








Last updated: April 11, 2012